待翻译

待翻译

美国FDA:万圣节安全,服装、糖果和美瞳隐形眼镜

豌豆爸爸 发表了文章 • 0 个评论 • 100 次浏览 • 2017-10-23 11:18 • 来自相关话题

Whether you’re a ghost or zombie, vampire or witch, poor costume choices—including decorative (colored) contact lenses and flammable costumes—and face paint allergies can cause injuries that haunt you long after Halloween.

Enjoy a safe and happy Halloween by following these guidelines from FDA, the Consumer Product Safety Commission, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:
Wear costumes that say “flame resistant” on the label. If you make your costume, use flame-resistant fabrics such as polyester or nylon.Wear bright, reflective costumes or add strips of reflective tape so you’ll be more visible; make sure the costumes aren’t so long that you’re in danger of tripping.Wear makeup and hats rather than masks that can obscure your vision.Test the makeup you plan to use in advance. Put a small amount on the arm of the person who will be wearing it. If a rash, redness, swelling, or other signs of irritation develop where the makeup was applied, that's a sign of a possible allergy.Vibrantly colored makeup is popular at Halloween. Check FDA’s list of color additives to see if the colors are FDA approved. If they aren’t approved for their intended use, don’t use them. This is especially important for colored makeup around the eyes.Don’t wear decorative (colored) contact lenses unless you have seen an eye care professional for a proper fitting and been given instructions for how to use the lenses.
 
Safe Treats

Eating sweet treats is also a big part of Halloween fun.
Before you or your children go trick-or-treating, remember these tips:
•Don’t eat candy until it has been inspected at home.
•Eat a snack before heading out to avoid the temptation of nibbling on a treat before it has been inspected.
•In case of a food allergy, check the label to ensure the allergen isn’t present. Tell children not to accept—or eat—anything that isn’t commercially wrapped.
•Parents of very young children should remove any choking hazards such as gum, peanuts, hard candies, or small toys from the Halloween bags.
•Inspect commercially wrapped treats for signs of tampering, such as an unusual appearance or discoloration, tiny pinholes, or tears in wrappers. Throw away anything that looks suspicious.
 
For partygoers and party throwers, FDA recommends the following tips for two seasonal favorites:

•Unpasteurized juices and juices that have not been further processed are at higher risk of food- borne illness. Look for the warning label to identify juice that hasn’t been pasteurized or otherwise processed, especially packaged juice products made on site. If unsure, always ask if juice has been pasteurized or not. Normally, juice in boxes, bottles or cans from your grocer’s frozen food case, refrigerated section, or shelf has been pasteurized.

•Before bobbing for apples—a favorite Halloween game—reduce the risk of bacteria by thoroughly rinsing the apples under cool running water. As an added precaution, use a produce brush to remove surface dirt.
 
Eye Safety

FDA joins eye care professionals—including the American Academy of Ophthalmology, the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, the Contact Lens Association of Ophthalmologists and the American Optometric Association—in discouraging consumers from using illegal decorative (colored) contact lenses. These are contact lenses that have not been approved by FDA for safety and effectiveness. Consumers should only use brand name contact lenses from well-known contact lens companies.
 
If you have never worn contact lenses before, Halloween should not be the first time you wear them. Experts warn that buying any kind of contact lenses—which are medical devices and regulated as such—without an examination and a prescription from an eye care professional can cause serious eye disorders and infections, which may lead to permanent vision loss. Despite the fact that it’s illegal to sell decorative contact lenses without a valid prescription, FDA says the lenses are sold on the Internet and in retail shops and salons—particularly around Halloween.

The decorative lenses make the wearer’s eyes appear to glow in the dark, create the illusion of vertical “cat eyes,” or change the wearer’s eye color.

Although unauthorized use of decorative contact lenses is a concern year-round, Halloween is the time when people may be inclined to use them, perhaps as costume accessories. When they are bought and used without a valid prescription, without the involvement of a qualified eye care professional, or without appropriate follow-up care, it can lead to significant risks of eye injuries, including blindness.

本文刊载于FDA的消费者更新专栏上,此栏目专门刊载FDA所管理产品的最新消息。

更新日期: October 20, 2017
发布日期: October 26, 2010

中文翻译:
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1815
原文出处:https://www.fda.gov/forconsume ... 3.htm 查看全部


Whether you’re a ghost or zombie, vampire or witch, poor costume choices—including decorative (colored) contact lenses and flammable costumes—and face paint allergies can cause injuries that haunt you long after Halloween.

Enjoy a safe and happy Halloween by following these guidelines from FDA, the Consumer Product Safety Commission, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:
  • Wear costumes that say “flame resistant” on the label. If you make your costume, use flame-resistant fabrics such as polyester or nylon.
  • Wear bright, reflective costumes or add strips of reflective tape so you’ll be more visible; make sure the costumes aren’t so long that you’re in danger of tripping.
  • Wear makeup and hats rather than masks that can obscure your vision.
  • Test the makeup you plan to use in advance. Put a small amount on the arm of the person who will be wearing it. If a rash, redness, swelling, or other signs of irritation develop where the makeup was applied, that's a sign of a possible allergy.
  • Vibrantly colored makeup is popular at Halloween. Check FDA’s list of color additives to see if the colors are FDA approved. If they aren’t approved for their intended use, don’t use them. This is especially important for colored makeup around the eyes.
  • Don’t wear decorative (colored) contact lenses unless you have seen an eye care professional for a proper fitting and been given instructions for how to use the lenses.

 
Safe Treats

Eating sweet treats is also a big part of Halloween fun.
Before you or your children go trick-or-treating, remember these tips:
•Don’t eat candy until it has been inspected at home.
•Eat a snack before heading out to avoid the temptation of nibbling on a treat before it has been inspected.
•In case of a food allergy, check the label to ensure the allergen isn’t present. Tell children not to accept—or eat—anything that isn’t commercially wrapped.
•Parents of very young children should remove any choking hazards such as gum, peanuts, hard candies, or small toys from the Halloween bags.
•Inspect commercially wrapped treats for signs of tampering, such as an unusual appearance or discoloration, tiny pinholes, or tears in wrappers. Throw away anything that looks suspicious.
 
For partygoers and party throwers, FDA recommends the following tips for two seasonal favorites:

•Unpasteurized juices and juices that have not been further processed are at higher risk of food- borne illness. Look for the warning label to identify juice that hasn’t been pasteurized or otherwise processed, especially packaged juice products made on site. If unsure, always ask if juice has been pasteurized or not. Normally, juice in boxes, bottles or cans from your grocer’s frozen food case, refrigerated section, or shelf has been pasteurized.

•Before bobbing for apples—a favorite Halloween game—reduce the risk of bacteria by thoroughly rinsing the apples under cool running water. As an added precaution, use a produce brush to remove surface dirt.
 
Eye Safety

FDA joins eye care professionals—including the American Academy of Ophthalmology, the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, the Contact Lens Association of Ophthalmologists and the American Optometric Association—in discouraging consumers from using illegal decorative (colored) contact lenses. These are contact lenses that have not been approved by FDA for safety and effectiveness. Consumers should only use brand name contact lenses from well-known contact lens companies.
 
If you have never worn contact lenses before, Halloween should not be the first time you wear them. Experts warn that buying any kind of contact lenses—which are medical devices and regulated as such—without an examination and a prescription from an eye care professional can cause serious eye disorders and infections, which may lead to permanent vision loss. Despite the fact that it’s illegal to sell decorative contact lenses without a valid prescription, FDA says the lenses are sold on the Internet and in retail shops and salons—particularly around Halloween.

The decorative lenses make the wearer’s eyes appear to glow in the dark, create the illusion of vertical “cat eyes,” or change the wearer’s eye color.

Although unauthorized use of decorative contact lenses is a concern year-round, Halloween is the time when people may be inclined to use them, perhaps as costume accessories. When they are bought and used without a valid prescription, without the involvement of a qualified eye care professional, or without appropriate follow-up care, it can lead to significant risks of eye injuries, including blindness.

本文刊载于FDA的消费者更新专栏上,此栏目专门刊载FDA所管理产品的最新消息。

更新日期: October 20, 2017
发布日期: October 26, 2010

中文翻译:
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1815
原文出处:https://www.fda.gov/forconsume ... 3.htm

做为学生,如果你将欺凌行为报告给成人但于事无补该怎么办?

豌豆爸爸 发表了文章 • 3 个评论 • 105 次浏览 • 2017-08-08 14:46 • 来自相关话题

 浓缩版
Have you told someone about being bullied and nothing has changed? Don’t give up! Did you know that you have the legal right to be safe at school? If the bullying continues even after you told an adult, know that there are laws designed to protect you (find your state law or policy at StopBullying.gov). It is very important for students to reach out to another trusted adult and ask for help again. This adult can be a parent, a teacher, a coach, or anyone from the community. Let them know that you need their help and that you wouldn’t be coming to them if you could fix the situation on your own.

完整版

If you told an adult about a bullying situation and it wasn’t helpful, don’t give up! Be a self-advocate. Speak up for yourself and let another adult know what you need in order to feel safe. Every student has the right to feel safe at school.

All states have laws or policies to address bullying prevention in schools. Some adults may not be aware of these laws or realize that the school has a bullying prevention policy in place. Share your knowledge that there is a law, and keep talking until someone understands and gives you support. There are people who care and will help you.

When speaking to a trusted adult, whether it be a school administrator, a teacher, counselor, or another adult in the community, share important information with them, such as:
a description of the bullyinga reminder that there are laws outlining the school’s responsibility in handling bullying situationsa discussion of the school’s bullying prevention policy

You may have additional protections when the bullying is about race, color, national origin, age, sex, religion, or disability. This is called harassment and there is a federal law.

On your own, or with the help of an adult, create an action plan. Write down what is happening to you with details about where it happens and who is involved. Think about what you can do to change your situation or what would help you gain control over the situation. PACER’s Student Action Plan can be a great place to start this process.

Bullying hurts, it’s emotional, but know that you do not have to deal with it alone. The first person may not have been able to help, but keep going. There are adults who will listen, be there for you, and support you.

Blog
Read the article written by PACER staff, which was posted to Disney’s Babble blog: Speaking up about bullying isn’t tattling and our kids need to know the difference.
 
中文翻译:
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1787
原文出处:http://www.pacer.org/bullying/ ... t.asp 查看全部

 浓缩版
Have you told someone about being bullied and nothing has changed? Don’t give up! Did you know that you have the legal right to be safe at school? If the bullying continues even after you told an adult, know that there are laws designed to protect you (find your state law or policy at StopBullying.gov). It is very important for students to reach out to another trusted adult and ask for help again. This adult can be a parent, a teacher, a coach, or anyone from the community. Let them know that you need their help and that you wouldn’t be coming to them if you could fix the situation on your own.

完整版

If you told an adult about a bullying situation and it wasn’t helpful, don’t give up! Be a self-advocate. Speak up for yourself and let another adult know what you need in order to feel safe. Every student has the right to feel safe at school.

All states have laws or policies to address bullying prevention in schools. Some adults may not be aware of these laws or realize that the school has a bullying prevention policy in place. Share your knowledge that there is a law, and keep talking until someone understands and gives you support. There are people who care and will help you.

When speaking to a trusted adult, whether it be a school administrator, a teacher, counselor, or another adult in the community, share important information with them, such as:
  • a description of the bullying
  • a reminder that there are laws outlining the school’s responsibility in handling bullying situations
  • a discussion of the school’s bullying prevention policy


You may have additional protections when the bullying is about race, color, national origin, age, sex, religion, or disability. This is called harassment and there is a federal law.

On your own, or with the help of an adult, create an action plan. Write down what is happening to you with details about where it happens and who is involved. Think about what you can do to change your situation or what would help you gain control over the situation. PACER’s Student Action Plan can be a great place to start this process.

Bullying hurts, it’s emotional, but know that you do not have to deal with it alone. The first person may not have been able to help, but keep going. There are adults who will listen, be there for you, and support you.

Blog
Read the article written by PACER staff, which was posted to Disney’s Babble blog: Speaking up about bullying isn’t tattling and our kids need to know the difference.
 
中文翻译:
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1787
原文出处:http://www.pacer.org/bullying/ ... t.asp

孩子在学校受到欺凌,我该如何与学校有效沟通以确保欺凌不再发生?

豌豆爸爸 发表了文章 • 1 个评论 • 83 次浏览 • 2017-08-08 14:42 • 来自相关话题

 浓缩版
When your child is the target of bullying, a parent’s first response is often an emotional one, followed by a sense of wanting to know the most effective, action-oriented response. Building positive relationships between the school, parents, and students will ensure that a plan and timeline of action can be quickly set in place to prevent further bullying.

完整版

It can be heartbreaking for parents to learn that their child is being bullied at school. It is difficult for parents to know what to do when a report of bullying is made, and if they should have done something ahead of time that might have influenced what happened to their child. Developing positive relationships with teachers and staff, while using effective communication tools, can help greatly when dealing with a difficult situation such as bullying.

Staff are often the first adults to learn about a school bullying situation, and they can identify different patterns and social patterns with students than parents do at home. Partnerships between parents and school personnel is one of the best ways to prevent further bullying and is essential when bullying is happening at school.

Here are some best practices to guide parents working with school staff toward a healthier and safer school environment for their child:

Speak with an adult at school who knows your child well
Do establish a relationship with your child’s teachers at the beginning of the school year.Do immediately contact a teacher or another staff member (such as the principal or an advisor) who is close to your child if there is a report of bullying.Do understand that they may redirect you to the appropriate person. In some schools this is the dean of students; in other schools, it might be the vice principal who is responsible for bullying and discipline issues. The information on who to contact and how the process will be addressed should be available on your school’s website, from school administration, or in your parent handbook.

Keeping records and written information
Do document and create a timeline for what your child has told you with dates, times, and people involved in the bullying.Do note who you speak to at the school.Do ask about the timing of the follow-up process and who will be getting back to you.Do create a paper file that will hold hard copies of everything.Do keep documentation in that file of all communication with the school, including emails, calls, and letters.Do keep a history of any bullying behavior, documenting face-to-face incidents, or the screenshots, texts, or URLs of bullying directed at your child.

Meeting with school staff
Do bring your file with you, and prepare questions and a list of priorities and concerns to discuss. Know that it’s possible you will feel stressed; try to stay calm and communicate what your child needs as clearly as possible. Ask in advance what the purpose of the meeting will be and who will be there.Do make sure that there is an agenda and that your items are on it.Do repeat what you’ve heard so that you can be sure of what school staff are saying.Do summarize the outcomes at the end of the meeting.Do determine who will be responsible for future steps.Do offer thanks for what staff have done so far and what will happen in the future for your child.

Asking questions
Do ask what, who, when, where, and how questions.Do follow up with constructive phrases such as:
 
“Tell me more about…”“Please explain…”“What do you suggest we do about…”“I think I heard you say… is that correct”

Creating a plan
Do describe the problem clearly while encouraging input from all members of the team.Do allow for brainstorming without evaluating the ideas.Do participate in the brainstorming as an advocate for your child’s needs.Do ask your child for their feedback and ideas on what they’d like to see happen.Do choose a solution by consensus (all parties in agreement). Define who is responsible for an action and when it will be done.Do put that plan in writing, and create a timeline and criteria to evaluate success.Do understand that participation and follow up will be needed from everyone.

While bullying is a difficult situation for everyone involved, a good partnership between the school and parents can help address the situation and prevent further bullying. Using the best practices of good communication strategies and planning, parents can collaborate with the school to ensure a good outcome for their child, whatever the problem.

More details can be found at the interactive online module PACER.org/bullying/resources/parents/working-with-school.asp.
 
中文翻译:
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1786
原文出处:http://www.pacer.org/bullying/ ... l.asp 查看全部

 浓缩版
When your child is the target of bullying, a parent’s first response is often an emotional one, followed by a sense of wanting to know the most effective, action-oriented response. Building positive relationships between the school, parents, and students will ensure that a plan and timeline of action can be quickly set in place to prevent further bullying.

完整版

It can be heartbreaking for parents to learn that their child is being bullied at school. It is difficult for parents to know what to do when a report of bullying is made, and if they should have done something ahead of time that might have influenced what happened to their child. Developing positive relationships with teachers and staff, while using effective communication tools, can help greatly when dealing with a difficult situation such as bullying.

Staff are often the first adults to learn about a school bullying situation, and they can identify different patterns and social patterns with students than parents do at home. Partnerships between parents and school personnel is one of the best ways to prevent further bullying and is essential when bullying is happening at school.

Here are some best practices to guide parents working with school staff toward a healthier and safer school environment for their child:

Speak with an adult at school who knows your child well
  • Do establish a relationship with your child’s teachers at the beginning of the school year.
  • Do immediately contact a teacher or another staff member (such as the principal or an advisor) who is close to your child if there is a report of bullying.
  • Do understand that they may redirect you to the appropriate person. In some schools this is the dean of students; in other schools, it might be the vice principal who is responsible for bullying and discipline issues. The information on who to contact and how the process will be addressed should be available on your school’s website, from school administration, or in your parent handbook.


Keeping records and written information
  • Do document and create a timeline for what your child has told you with dates, times, and people involved in the bullying.
  • Do note who you speak to at the school.
  • Do ask about the timing of the follow-up process and who will be getting back to you.
  • Do create a paper file that will hold hard copies of everything.
  • Do keep documentation in that file of all communication with the school, including emails, calls, and letters.
  • Do keep a history of any bullying behavior, documenting face-to-face incidents, or the screenshots, texts, or URLs of bullying directed at your child.


Meeting with school staff
  • Do bring your file with you, and prepare questions and a list of priorities and concerns to discuss. Know that it’s possible you will feel stressed; try to stay calm and communicate what your child needs as clearly as possible. Ask in advance what the purpose of the meeting will be and who will be there.
  • Do make sure that there is an agenda and that your items are on it.
  • Do repeat what you’ve heard so that you can be sure of what school staff are saying.
  • Do summarize the outcomes at the end of the meeting.
  • Do determine who will be responsible for future steps.
  • Do offer thanks for what staff have done so far and what will happen in the future for your child.


Asking questions
  • Do ask what, who, when, where, and how questions.
  • Do follow up with constructive phrases such as:

 
  1. “Tell me more about…”
  2. “Please explain…”
  3. “What do you suggest we do about…”
  4. “I think I heard you say… is that correct”


Creating a plan
  • Do describe the problem clearly while encouraging input from all members of the team.
  • Do allow for brainstorming without evaluating the ideas.
  • Do participate in the brainstorming as an advocate for your child’s needs.
  • Do ask your child for their feedback and ideas on what they’d like to see happen.
  • Do choose a solution by consensus (all parties in agreement). Define who is responsible for an action and when it will be done.
  • Do put that plan in writing, and create a timeline and criteria to evaluate success.
  • Do understand that participation and follow up will be needed from everyone.


While bullying is a difficult situation for everyone involved, a good partnership between the school and parents can help address the situation and prevent further bullying. Using the best practices of good communication strategies and planning, parents can collaborate with the school to ensure a good outcome for their child, whatever the problem.

More details can be found at the interactive online module PACER.org/bullying/resources/parents/working-with-school.asp.
 
中文翻译:
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1786
原文出处:http://www.pacer.org/bullying/ ... l.asp

父母改变孩子欺凌行为的策略

豌豆爸爸 发表了文章 • 0 个评论 • 83 次浏览 • 2017-08-08 14:38 • 来自相关话题

浓缩版
When a child is bullying others, it’s important that parents and educators take action. It is equally important for adults to recognize that bullying is about behavior, and they should choose responses that acknowledge behavior can be changed. Reframing the focus from labeling a child as a “bully” to referring to them as a “child with bullying behavior” recognizes that there is capacity for change. While children who are bullying others should be given appropriate consequences for their behavior, adults should be talking with their children to learn why they are bullying others. Children need to understand the impact their behavior has on others and realize the hurt they are causing. With adult guidance, redirecting bullying behavior toward an understanding of differences, as well as the practices of kindness and inclusion, are good strategies for reshaping a child’s behavior.

完整版

Bullying is a learned behavior — and it can be “unlearned” and replaced with more positive behaviors. By talking with your child and taking action, you can teach your child more appropriate ways of handling feelings and responding to peer pressure and conflicts.

While it is important to look into any report of bullying and have it stopped quickly, it is good to remember that children are still developing an awareness of the skills they need to maintain healthy relationships. Their behavior can and does change throughout childhood as their identity is formed.

Finding strategies to assist with the development of positive behaviors can influence bullying behavior in children, at home, or at school. If you suspect or know that your child has been bullying others, here are some things to do right away and on an ongoing basis:
Talk with your child. Children may not always recognize their behavior as bullying. They may see it as “just having fun” and not realize the impact it has on another child. Help them understand what defines bullying and emphasize that this behavior is never appropriate.Explore reasons for the behavior. Find out why your child is behaving in a manner that is harmful to others through an open, nonjudgmental discussion. Here are some helpful tips on having that conversation.Confirm that your child’s behavior is bullying and not the result of a disability. Sometimes, children with disabilities who have certain emotional and behavioral disorders, or are in the process of developing social skills, may act in ways that are mistaken for bullying.Develop an action plan. It’s important to think through the steps that work for you, your child, and your situation. A good tool to use is this Student Action Plan.Teach empathy, respect, and compassion. Children who bully often lack awareness of how others feel or understand how their actions impact someone else. Try to understand your child’s feelings and help your child appreciate how others feel when they are bullied. Let your child know that everyone has feelings and that feelings matter.Make your expectations clear. Let your child know that bullying is not okay under any circumstances and that you will not tolerate it. Let them know that there will be consequences for their behavior. Take immediate action if you learn that he or she is involved in a bullying incident.Provide clear and consistent consequences for bullying. Be specific about what will happen if the bullying continues. Try to find meaningful consequences that fit the situation, such as loss of privileges or activities. If the behavior does not change, consider increasing the significance of the consequences.Teach by example. Help your child learn different ways to resolve conflict and deal with feelings, such as anger, insecurity, or frustration. Teach and reward appropriate behavior.Provide positive feedback. When your child handles conflict well, shows compassion for others, or find a positive way to deal with feelings, provide praise and recognition. Positive reinforcement can help improve behavior and is usually more effective than punishment.Be realistic. It takes time to change behavior. Recognize that there may be setbacks. Be patient as your child learns new ways of handling feelings and conflict. Keep your concern and support visible.

Speaking with school personnel and developing a collaborative relationship with school staff can also be very helpful in changing a child’s behavior. Reach out to those who work with your child at school and share information about your concerns.

Here are some other tips for establishing relationships in your child's school or community:
Establish good communication with your child’s teachers and coaches at the start of the school year.Speak with school staff. Talk to the principal, dean, counselor, or social worker to determine if the school offers a bullying prevention program and how your child might be involved.Research ways for your child to be involved in groups that encourage cooperative relationships and focus on working with others.Seek help from your community. It’s important to find resources in both the school and community. Your child’s doctor, leaders of youth groups, coaches, or mental health practitioners can help you and your child learn how to understand and deal with bullying behavior.

博客

Read the article written by PACER staff, which was posted to Disney’s Babble blog:, What if Your Child Is the One Doing the Bullying?
 
中文翻译:
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1785
原文出处:http://www.pacer.org/bullying/ ... r.asp 查看全部


浓缩版
When a child is bullying others, it’s important that parents and educators take action. It is equally important for adults to recognize that bullying is about behavior, and they should choose responses that acknowledge behavior can be changed. Reframing the focus from labeling a child as a “bully” to referring to them as a “child with bullying behavior” recognizes that there is capacity for change. While children who are bullying others should be given appropriate consequences for their behavior, adults should be talking with their children to learn why they are bullying others. Children need to understand the impact their behavior has on others and realize the hurt they are causing. With adult guidance, redirecting bullying behavior toward an understanding of differences, as well as the practices of kindness and inclusion, are good strategies for reshaping a child’s behavior.

完整版

Bullying is a learned behavior — and it can be “unlearned” and replaced with more positive behaviors. By talking with your child and taking action, you can teach your child more appropriate ways of handling feelings and responding to peer pressure and conflicts.

While it is important to look into any report of bullying and have it stopped quickly, it is good to remember that children are still developing an awareness of the skills they need to maintain healthy relationships. Their behavior can and does change throughout childhood as their identity is formed.

Finding strategies to assist with the development of positive behaviors can influence bullying behavior in children, at home, or at school. If you suspect or know that your child has been bullying others, here are some things to do right away and on an ongoing basis:
  • Talk with your child. Children may not always recognize their behavior as bullying. They may see it as “just having fun” and not realize the impact it has on another child. Help them understand what defines bullying and emphasize that this behavior is never appropriate.
  • Explore reasons for the behavior. Find out why your child is behaving in a manner that is harmful to others through an open, nonjudgmental discussion. Here are some helpful tips on having that conversation.
  • Confirm that your child’s behavior is bullying and not the result of a disability. Sometimes, children with disabilities who have certain emotional and behavioral disorders, or are in the process of developing social skills, may act in ways that are mistaken for bullying.
  • Develop an action plan. It’s important to think through the steps that work for you, your child, and your situation. A good tool to use is this Student Action Plan.
  • Teach empathy, respect, and compassion. Children who bully often lack awareness of how others feel or understand how their actions impact someone else. Try to understand your child’s feelings and help your child appreciate how others feel when they are bullied. Let your child know that everyone has feelings and that feelings matter.
  • Make your expectations clear. Let your child know that bullying is not okay under any circumstances and that you will not tolerate it. Let them know that there will be consequences for their behavior. Take immediate action if you learn that he or she is involved in a bullying incident.
  • Provide clear and consistent consequences for bullying. Be specific about what will happen if the bullying continues. Try to find meaningful consequences that fit the situation, such as loss of privileges or activities. If the behavior does not change, consider increasing the significance of the consequences.
  • Teach by example. Help your child learn different ways to resolve conflict and deal with feelings, such as anger, insecurity, or frustration. Teach and reward appropriate behavior.
  • Provide positive feedback. When your child handles conflict well, shows compassion for others, or find a positive way to deal with feelings, provide praise and recognition. Positive reinforcement can help improve behavior and is usually more effective than punishment.
  • Be realistic. It takes time to change behavior. Recognize that there may be setbacks. Be patient as your child learns new ways of handling feelings and conflict. Keep your concern and support visible.


Speaking with school personnel and developing a collaborative relationship with school staff can also be very helpful in changing a child’s behavior. Reach out to those who work with your child at school and share information about your concerns.

Here are some other tips for establishing relationships in your child's school or community:
  • Establish good communication with your child’s teachers and coaches at the start of the school year.
  • Speak with school staff. Talk to the principal, dean, counselor, or social worker to determine if the school offers a bullying prevention program and how your child might be involved.
  • Research ways for your child to be involved in groups that encourage cooperative relationships and focus on working with others.
  • Seek help from your community. It’s important to find resources in both the school and community. Your child’s doctor, leaders of youth groups, coaches, or mental health practitioners can help you and your child learn how to understand and deal with bullying behavior.


博客

Read the article written by PACER staff, which was posted to Disney’s Babble blog:, What if Your Child Is the One Doing the Bullying?
 
中文翻译:
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1785
原文出处:http://www.pacer.org/bullying/ ... r.asp

为什么使用“欺凌预防”术语,而不用“反欺凌”?

豌豆爸爸 发表了文章 • 0 个评论 • 77 次浏览 • 2017-08-08 14:24 • 来自相关话题

 浓缩版
PACER’s National Bullying Prevention Center uses the term “bullying prevention” instead of “anti-bullying” to place the emphasis on a proactive approach and philosophy, framing bullying as an issue to which there is a solution. While the use of “anti” does appropriately indicate the concept of being against bullying, the focus on “prevention” recognizes that change is ultimately about shifting behavior and attitudes, which can happen through the positive approach of education, awareness, and action.

完整版

At PACER’s National Bullying Prevention Center, our vision is “to make every child safe and to change the culture in our society so that bullying is no longer viewed as acceptable behavior.” The language framing the goal is an important part of this change. It has the potential to influence the view of the issue and, in the best cases, direct ideas that promote positive behavior.

Using the term “bullying prevention” instead of “anti-bullying” places the focus where it should be: on understanding the actions that help prevent bullying from occurring. A term, such as “anti,” which focuses on the negative, often doesn’t allow for the opportunity to change or indicate what society can do about bullying.

Acting to change the behavior is vitally important to preventing bullying. Bullying should not be considered a childhood rite of passage. Instead, bullying behaviors should be viewed as changeable and preventable through education and awareness. Discussions with children that focus on inclusion over exclusion, and showing respect and kindness toward others need to occur frequently as children grow up. When children are brought to better awareness of these issues, they have a greater opportunity to develop empathy and an increased understanding that can ultimately disrupt or interrupt bullying dynamics.

In these ongoing conversations with children or throughout communities, to create a social environment where bullying is not accepted, include discussions on how bullying harms everyone involved — targets, witnesses, and the people who use these damaging behaviors. While “anti” does appropriately express being against bullying, the conversation must include preventative efforts. Discussing the steps necessary to resolve conflicts and promote healthy social interactions between people will lead to a culture focusing on a positive, proactive approach to preventing bullying.
 
中文翻译:
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1782
原文出处:http://www.pacer.org/bullying/ ... n.asp 查看全部

 浓缩版
PACER’s National Bullying Prevention Center uses the term “bullying prevention” instead of “anti-bullying” to place the emphasis on a proactive approach and philosophy, framing bullying as an issue to which there is a solution. While the use of “anti” does appropriately indicate the concept of being against bullying, the focus on “prevention” recognizes that change is ultimately about shifting behavior and attitudes, which can happen through the positive approach of education, awareness, and action.

完整版

At PACER’s National Bullying Prevention Center, our vision is “to make every child safe and to change the culture in our society so that bullying is no longer viewed as acceptable behavior.” The language framing the goal is an important part of this change. It has the potential to influence the view of the issue and, in the best cases, direct ideas that promote positive behavior.

Using the term “bullying prevention” instead of “anti-bullying” places the focus where it should be: on understanding the actions that help prevent bullying from occurring. A term, such as “anti,” which focuses on the negative, often doesn’t allow for the opportunity to change or indicate what society can do about bullying.

Acting to change the behavior is vitally important to preventing bullying. Bullying should not be considered a childhood rite of passage. Instead, bullying behaviors should be viewed as changeable and preventable through education and awareness. Discussions with children that focus on inclusion over exclusion, and showing respect and kindness toward others need to occur frequently as children grow up. When children are brought to better awareness of these issues, they have a greater opportunity to develop empathy and an increased understanding that can ultimately disrupt or interrupt bullying dynamics.

In these ongoing conversations with children or throughout communities, to create a social environment where bullying is not accepted, include discussions on how bullying harms everyone involved — targets, witnesses, and the people who use these damaging behaviors. While “anti” does appropriately express being against bullying, the conversation must include preventative efforts. Discussing the steps necessary to resolve conflicts and promote healthy social interactions between people will lead to a culture focusing on a positive, proactive approach to preventing bullying.
 
中文翻译:
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1782
原文出处:http://www.pacer.org/bullying/ ... n.asp

朋友会欺凌我吗?

豌豆爸爸 发表了文章 • 0 个评论 • 60 次浏览 • 2017-08-08 14:22 • 来自相关话题

 浓缩版
Friends will sometimes have bad days. Friends will sometimes disagree. Friends will sometimes hurt each other's feelings, have an argument, or simply need time away from one another. This is normal and can happen in any friendship, no matter how close. If you are experiencing treatment from a friend that hurts you and you have asked that friend to stop, but it still continues, then that is not friendship. That behavior could be bullying. Friendship behaviors do not include hurting someone on purpose or continually being mean even when asked to stop. A friend will change or be remorseful for her behavior if she finds out she's hurting you. If you aren't certain if what is happening is part of a normal friendship or if it is bullying, talk to an adult you trust and get help sorting out the relationship. And yes, it is okay (and the right thing to do) to ask for help.

完整版

Is it possible that someone we call a friend, or even a best friend, is the very person that treats us the worst? How can the person with whom we share jokes, snacks, and secrets be someone who hurts us?

With relationships, it’s natural to have conflict as we learn how to be friends and communicate. Sometimes we make mistakes with friends, hurt their feelings, apologize for what we’ve done, and move on. Through making mistakes in our relationships, we learn what to do with the people around us — as well as what not to do. It’s normal to have conflicts or disagreements with friends as we grow up; that’s how we learn to be better friends and communicators.

What’s not okay — and is never deserved — is when someone we are close to decides to threaten us, to hurt our feelings intentionally, misuse our trust, or make us feel less than who we are. If someone we call a friend repeatedly uses bullying behavior — such as belittling who we are, trying to control us, or attempting to tell us who we can be friends with — that’s no longer a friend. That type of behavior is outside of friendship in every way and has to be called what it is: bullying.

This is a painful and sometimes unacknowledged type of bullying that is hard to understand and even harder to endure. Here’s how to recognize when those we are close to are bullying us, even though we call them “friends.”

Below are some examples to help recognize if bullying is happening in your relationships:
You are made fun of, called names, or teased for your appearance or what you wearYou are mocked or mimicked for what you say or how you actYou are laughed at when people know you’re hurting from being teased or physically abusedYou are told who you can be friends with or what you can and can’t doYou are purposefully excluded from events or get-togethers in which other friends are invitedYou have told your friends to stop the negative behavior and they continue anywayYou are made to feel that you don’t live up to the standards of the friend group
 
If you or someone you care about is being bullied by a “friend,” please find an adult you trust and tell them what’s going on as soon as possible. Bullying like this often does not stop without intervention. Bullying like this doesn’t go away if you ignore it either. This type of situation will need assistance and advice on making a plan for what to do.

You’ll also need allies, people around you at school or in your neighborhood who will actively support you and have your back. An ally will stand up for you if she feels safe, or be a witness to what’s going on and be able to tell an adult what she saw happen. An ally can help you feel less alone, too, which is a very good thing.

Don’t hesitate for too long when someone you call a friend is repeatedly disrespectful to you and causes you pain when you’ve asked them to stop. If you find you’re always nervous and anxious around a friend because you’re worried about what they might say or do to you, talk to an adult and work out what’s happening. Sometimes it will be a normal consequence of learning to be friends, and sometimes it will be bullying. If it’s bullying, that’s not friendship and it probably never will be. You have the right to be around people who treat you like a friend, and that you can respect and trust.

Teen Perspective

The following is excerpted from a response to a question submitted for the ASK JAMIE column on PACERTeensAgainstBullying.com.

The question came from Scarlett, a 7th grader, who wrote, “I love my friends, but sometimes I feel like they don’t like me much. At school they call me names all the time, then they say they are just joking, but it feels mean and sometimes I feel excluded and sad.”

Ask Jamie’s response: It sounds like you have been facing bullying from your friends but feel unsure of how to handle it, especially since it is veiled as “just a joke.” This is something I, and many others, relate to. It is difficult to know how to respond to a friend who says hurtful comments, since oftentimes they will defend themselves with the “joke” cover.

A general guideline is: If you don’t find it funny but do find it hurtful, then it isn’t okay.

Your friend may very well have intended the comment as a joke, but it is the way it makes you feel that matters. If you feel hurt, unsafe, or targeted by the joke, then ask your friends to stop. If it happens again, and as long as you stay safe, say something like: “I know you probably think that you are just kidding, but the comments you have made are really hurtful, so I would really appreciate if you would stop. I know that if you realized how much your words affected me, you would stop.”

If they cannot respect your requests, then they are not being true friends and, therefore, may not deserve your friendship. Realize that you deserved to be treated with kindness, so any friendships that are offering meanness should be evaluated and its your decision about whether or not to continue the relationship.
 
中文翻译:
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1781
原文出处:http://www.pacer.org/bullying/ ... g.asp 查看全部

 浓缩版
Friends will sometimes have bad days. Friends will sometimes disagree. Friends will sometimes hurt each other's feelings, have an argument, or simply need time away from one another. This is normal and can happen in any friendship, no matter how close. If you are experiencing treatment from a friend that hurts you and you have asked that friend to stop, but it still continues, then that is not friendship. That behavior could be bullying. Friendship behaviors do not include hurting someone on purpose or continually being mean even when asked to stop. A friend will change or be remorseful for her behavior if she finds out she's hurting you. If you aren't certain if what is happening is part of a normal friendship or if it is bullying, talk to an adult you trust and get help sorting out the relationship. And yes, it is okay (and the right thing to do) to ask for help.

完整版

Is it possible that someone we call a friend, or even a best friend, is the very person that treats us the worst? How can the person with whom we share jokes, snacks, and secrets be someone who hurts us?

With relationships, it’s natural to have conflict as we learn how to be friends and communicate. Sometimes we make mistakes with friends, hurt their feelings, apologize for what we’ve done, and move on. Through making mistakes in our relationships, we learn what to do with the people around us — as well as what not to do. It’s normal to have conflicts or disagreements with friends as we grow up; that’s how we learn to be better friends and communicators.

What’s not okay — and is never deserved — is when someone we are close to decides to threaten us, to hurt our feelings intentionally, misuse our trust, or make us feel less than who we are. If someone we call a friend repeatedly uses bullying behavior — such as belittling who we are, trying to control us, or attempting to tell us who we can be friends with — that’s no longer a friend. That type of behavior is outside of friendship in every way and has to be called what it is: bullying.

This is a painful and sometimes unacknowledged type of bullying that is hard to understand and even harder to endure. Here’s how to recognize when those we are close to are bullying us, even though we call them “friends.”

Below are some examples to help recognize if bullying is happening in your relationships:
  • You are made fun of, called names, or teased for your appearance or what you wear
  • You are mocked or mimicked for what you say or how you act
  • You are laughed at when people know you’re hurting from being teased or physically abused
  • You are told who you can be friends with or what you can and can’t do
  • You are purposefully excluded from events or get-togethers in which other friends are invited
  • You have told your friends to stop the negative behavior and they continue anyway
  • You are made to feel that you don’t live up to the standards of the friend group

 
If you or someone you care about is being bullied by a “friend,” please find an adult you trust and tell them what’s going on as soon as possible. Bullying like this often does not stop without intervention. Bullying like this doesn’t go away if you ignore it either. This type of situation will need assistance and advice on making a plan for what to do.

You’ll also need allies, people around you at school or in your neighborhood who will actively support you and have your back. An ally will stand up for you if she feels safe, or be a witness to what’s going on and be able to tell an adult what she saw happen. An ally can help you feel less alone, too, which is a very good thing.

Don’t hesitate for too long when someone you call a friend is repeatedly disrespectful to you and causes you pain when you’ve asked them to stop. If you find you’re always nervous and anxious around a friend because you’re worried about what they might say or do to you, talk to an adult and work out what’s happening. Sometimes it will be a normal consequence of learning to be friends, and sometimes it will be bullying. If it’s bullying, that’s not friendship and it probably never will be. You have the right to be around people who treat you like a friend, and that you can respect and trust.

Teen Perspective

The following is excerpted from a response to a question submitted for the ASK JAMIE column on PACERTeensAgainstBullying.com.

The question came from Scarlett, a 7th grader, who wrote, “I love my friends, but sometimes I feel like they don’t like me much. At school they call me names all the time, then they say they are just joking, but it feels mean and sometimes I feel excluded and sad.”

Ask Jamie’s response: It sounds like you have been facing bullying from your friends but feel unsure of how to handle it, especially since it is veiled as “just a joke.” This is something I, and many others, relate to. It is difficult to know how to respond to a friend who says hurtful comments, since oftentimes they will defend themselves with the “joke” cover.

A general guideline is: If you don’t find it funny but do find it hurtful, then it isn’t okay.

Your friend may very well have intended the comment as a joke, but it is the way it makes you feel that matters. If you feel hurt, unsafe, or targeted by the joke, then ask your friends to stop. If it happens again, and as long as you stay safe, say something like: “I know you probably think that you are just kidding, but the comments you have made are really hurtful, so I would really appreciate if you would stop. I know that if you realized how much your words affected me, you would stop.”

If they cannot respect your requests, then they are not being true friends and, therefore, may not deserve your friendship. Realize that you deserved to be treated with kindness, so any friendships that are offering meanness should be evaluated and its your decision about whether or not to continue the relationship.
 
中文翻译:
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1781
原文出处:http://www.pacer.org/bullying/ ... g.asp

欺凌和骚扰:两者有什么区别?

豌豆爸爸 发表了文章 • 0 个评论 • 46 次浏览 • 2017-08-08 14:18 • 来自相关话题

 浓缩版
Bullying and harassment are often used interchangeably when talking about hurtful or harmful behavior. They are very similar, but in terms of definition, there is an important difference.

Bullying and harassment are similar as they are both about:
power and controlactions that hurt or harm another person physically or emotionallyan imbalance of power between the target and the individual demonstrating the negative behaviorthe target having difficulty stopping the action directed at them
 
The distinction between bullying and harassment is that when the bullying behavior directed at the target is also based on a protected class, that behavior is then defined as harassment. Protected classes include:
racecolorreligionsexagedisabilitynational origin
 
完整版

Although bullying and harassment are often used interchangeably when talking about hurtful or harmful behavior — and the behavior may look the same — there are important distinctions in the definition, laws, and protections for students experiencing harassment.

The first difference is in the definitions of bullying and harassment. For bullying, it’s important to note that while definitions vary from source to source, most agree that an act is defined as bullying when the behavior hurts, harms, or humiliates another person physically or emotionally. Those targeted by bullying behavior struggle to defend themselves and stop the action directed at them. There also is an “imbalance of power.” This means the student demonstrating the bullying behavior has more power; this can be physically, socially, or emotionally (for example, a higher social status, physically larger, or emotionally intimidating).

The definition of harassment outlines that the behavior is similar by its unwanted and hurtful actions. It can include unwelcome conduct such as verbal abuse, graphic or written statements, threats, physical assault, or other conduct that is threatening or humiliating, but the negative behavior is based on a student’s race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. For example, bullying behavior meets the threshold of harassment when a student is being verbally bullied with demeaning language about their disability.

Students experiencing harassment also have protections at the federal level. The Office of Civil Rights (OCR) and the Department of Justice (DOJ) have stated that bullying is considered discriminatory harassment when based on a student’s race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. If a student is experiencing discriminatory harassment, federally funded schools are obligated under federal law to address the behavior.

If you’re looking for more information on how schools are required to address the behavior, visit stopbullying.gov.
 
中文翻译:
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1779
原文出处:http://www.pacer.org/bullying/ ... t.asp 查看全部

 浓缩版
Bullying and harassment are often used interchangeably when talking about hurtful or harmful behavior. They are very similar, but in terms of definition, there is an important difference.

Bullying and harassment are similar as they are both about:
  • power and control
  • actions that hurt or harm another person physically or emotionally
  • an imbalance of power between the target and the individual demonstrating the negative behavior
  • the target having difficulty stopping the action directed at them

 
The distinction between bullying and harassment is that when the bullying behavior directed at the target is also based on a protected class, that behavior is then defined as harassment. Protected classes include:
  • race
  • color
  • religion
  • sex
  • age
  • disability
  • national origin

 
完整版

Although bullying and harassment are often used interchangeably when talking about hurtful or harmful behavior — and the behavior may look the same — there are important distinctions in the definition, laws, and protections for students experiencing harassment.

The first difference is in the definitions of bullying and harassment. For bullying, it’s important to note that while definitions vary from source to source, most agree that an act is defined as bullying when the behavior hurts, harms, or humiliates another person physically or emotionally. Those targeted by bullying behavior struggle to defend themselves and stop the action directed at them. There also is an “imbalance of power.” This means the student demonstrating the bullying behavior has more power; this can be physically, socially, or emotionally (for example, a higher social status, physically larger, or emotionally intimidating).

The definition of harassment outlines that the behavior is similar by its unwanted and hurtful actions. It can include unwelcome conduct such as verbal abuse, graphic or written statements, threats, physical assault, or other conduct that is threatening or humiliating, but the negative behavior is based on a student’s race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. For example, bullying behavior meets the threshold of harassment when a student is being verbally bullied with demeaning language about their disability.

Students experiencing harassment also have protections at the federal level. The Office of Civil Rights (OCR) and the Department of Justice (DOJ) have stated that bullying is considered discriminatory harassment when based on a student’s race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. If a student is experiencing discriminatory harassment, federally funded schools are obligated under federal law to address the behavior.

If you’re looking for more information on how schools are required to address the behavior, visit stopbullying.gov.
 
中文翻译:
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1779
原文出处:http://www.pacer.org/bullying/ ... t.asp

冲突和欺凌:两者有什么区别?

豌豆爸爸 发表了文章 • 0 个评论 • 117 次浏览 • 2017-08-08 14:14 • 来自相关话题

 浓缩版
Bullying is different from conflict.

Conflict is a disagreement or argument in which both sides express their views.
Bullying is negative behavior directed by someone exerting power and control over another person.
Bullying is done with a goal to hurt, harm, or humiliate. With bullying, there is often a power imbalance between those involved, with power defined as elevated social status, being physically larger, or as part of a group against an individual. Students who bully perceive their target as vulnerable in some way and often find satisfaction in harming them.

In normal conflict, children self-monitor their behavior. They read cues to know if lines are crossed, and then modify their behavior in response. Children guided by empathy usually realize they have hurt someone and will want to stop their negative behavior. On the other hand, children intending to cause harm and whose behavior goes beyond normal conflict will continue their behavior even when they know it's hurting someone.

完整版

Why conflict isn’t all bad and why no one ever deserves to be bullied

If you are in a relationship with another human being, whether it’s a good friend or just someone who sits next to you in school, the chances are pretty good that you will be in conflict with that person at some point or have already had a conflict with that person. Where there are two people in a relationship, there likely will be disagreements and changes.

One friend might want to play video games; the other might want to go outside. One friend wants to go shopping; the other really doesn’t like shopping. Your classmate always wants to be first in line and so do you. Your brothers fight over who has a bigger part of their room, trying to make sure it’s exactly the same down to the inch. Things like that happen every day.

Conflict is a natural part of human relationships as people grow and change. Even though it can cause us stress and can hurt, conflict is not bullying. Conflict happens between two people who are equal in the relationship (think: friends or classmates or co-workers) but have two different points of view about what’s going on. Sometimes this escalates into a disagreement that’s so strong people become really emotional. There might be strong words used and lots of big feelings involved. It may take time to sort things out.

In conflict, when things are equal between people, both sides usually want the issue to be resolved. They don’t want the conflict to keep going on; they want to make things better and they want the relationship to continue in a healthy way. Neither person wants to keep hurting the other, so both people will try to do things to improve the situation. Sometimes, conflict can even be helpful in a relationship that needs to change, providing an opportunity to improve something that’s not going right between the parties.

With bullying, the person (or group of people) who is doing the bullying means to hurt the other person. The hurt or harm is done on purpose to make the bullying target feel like less of a person. There is always something unequal about the relationship between the two people; maybe the person bullying is physically stronger and creates fear because of that, or maybe the person bullying is more popular and has the kind of social power that can turn a whole group against one person.

Whichever type of power a person with bullying behavior has, they will use it over the person who is being bullied to make them feel less than who they are. Of course, the person who is being bullied does not want this treatment and did nothing to deserve being treated this way.

Bullying scenarios might look like this: Someone convinces a group to tease another student based on their looks; someone threatens to beat a person up because of how they talk; somebody posts something untrue and hurtful online about someone else; or someone trips a classmate and makes everyone laugh at the person falling down. The harm is done deliberately and the intent is to cause the other person to suffer in some way.

The bullying behavior is usually repeated, or threatened to be repeated, over and over. Someone who is bullying may decide to leave out a friend by giving them the cold shoulder and excluding them from group activities. Someone may use a false statement or other mean word toward another every time they see them, or go on social media in an attempt to damage their reputation. Even the threat of behavior like this causes unwanted and undeserved pain for the target.

Think about it this way:
Conflict, while sometimes uncomfortable, can be an opportunity for equal partners in the situation to learn how to solve problems. This will happen by both people working the problem out through healthy and positive means.Bullying is done by someone perceived to be more powerful than the target and is unwanted, negative, and meant to cause harm to the bullying target through physically or emotionally damaging means that are repeated or threatened to be repeated.
 
The next time you are in a conflict with someone (and there will likely be a next time!), try and remember that inside every conflict is a hidden opportunity to make your relationship better by learning to speak up for yourself and express your needs. Remember that conflict between two human beings is normal and is bound to happen.

Remember as well, that bullying is not the same as conflict. Bullying is meant to cause hurt or harm. Bullying is not something that anyone deserves to have happen to them and they have the right to feel safe.

Conflict Resolution

The difference between bullying and conflict is important to note, because conflict resolution or mediation strategies are sometimes misused to solve bullying problems. These strategies can send the message that both children are partly right and partly wrong, or that “We need to work out the conflict between you two.” These messages are not appropriate in cases of bullying (or in any situation where someone is being victimized). The appropriate message to the child who is being bullied should be “Bullying is wrong and no one deserves to be bullied. We are going to do everything we can to stop what is happening to you.”

Teen Perspective:

In one way or another, conflict is a part of everyday experience. Even if it is something small, which it typically is, there is the constant navigation of the complexities of human relationships. This is normal, and minor conflicts typically don’t make someone feel unsafe or threatened.

The questions to ask yourself when you are unsure about the tone of a certain conversation or encounter to determine if it is bullying include:
Are we equals in this situationDo I feel victimized or targeted by an individual or a groupDo I feel safeDo I feel that the person or group has intentionally hurt or humiliated me
Sometimes, it can be easy to minimize a bullying situation because you don’t really want to deal with the realities of what is happening to you. It is easy to get into a pattern of qualifying bullying as conflict in order to avoid facing the actual problem, when really it is something that you don’t deserve and something that requires outside intervention. It can be helpful to ask these questions to yourself, as it can help you sort out the reality of your particular situation.

Blog Post

Is it a Conflict or is it Bullying? Helping Our Kids Learn the Difference.
Written by staff at PACER's National Bullying Prevention Center

Third graders Nick and Kevin weren’t close friends, but they played foursquare together every recess they could. They battled every point during games that were always loud because the foursquare group was serious about the game. There were often disagreements about fouls and rules but they were generally able to work it out. The adults on recess duty did a nice job of monitoring the players, and they carried laminated sets of rules in case the players needed “help” with disputes. Yet, “It’s not fair!” was often shouted across the playground during recess.

One day Kevin came home and told his mother, Jennifer, that he’d been bullied. Jennifer, alarmed, asked for details.

“Nick pushed me on the playground,” Kevin said. He told Jennifer that he and Nick had argued about a ball that was “on the line,” and that a teacher asked both boys to sit on the bench to cool off during the rest of recess. “It’s not fair! He started it, but we both got punished,” Kevin said. Kevin didn’t think that Nick’s apology was punishment enough.

Had Nick bullied Kevin? Was Nick too aggressive, but not to the point of bullying Kevin? Or were both boys at fault? Jennifer wasn’t sure what to think. She called the school to ask for more details.

When a parent hears a story like this, it isn’t always clear what has happened or what the consequences should be. Jennifer was torn between feeling she might not have heard the whole story, and wanting to fix things for Kevin.

Here are some helpful ways to distinguish between a conflict and bullying behavior:

Conflict looks like:
Disagreement or argument in which both sides express their viewsEqual power between those involvedBehavior usually stops when one child realizes they are hurting another
 
Bullying looks like:
Intent of behavior is to hurt, harm, or humiliatePerson bullying has more “power” such as being more popular or physically strongerNegative behavior continues even when hurt or harm occurs
 
It can be hard for parents when their children are involved in difficult, confusing situations. Nevertheless, it’s important for parents to realize that conflict between children is inevitable – and that sometimes their child won’t like or agree with the outcome. Parents can help their children handle these situations by:
Asking open-ended questions about what happenedListening more than talkingOffering supportHelping their child problem solve
 
It’s easier for a child to confide what is happening to them when they know their parent is in their corner. Conflict situations are great teachable moments. Parents can help their children learn the skills necessary to express their own views and help create their own solutions.

A cautionary note: if behavior crosses the line from conflict to bullying, it’s not up to the child being bullied to fix the situation. While it can be important for the child to help create a plan for change, adults are responsible for making and enforcing rules so that all the children involved are safe.
 
中文翻译:
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1778
原文出处:http://www.pacer.org/bullying/ ... g.asp 查看全部

 浓缩版
Bullying is different from conflict.

Conflict is a disagreement or argument in which both sides express their views.
Bullying is negative behavior directed by someone exerting power and control over another person.
Bullying is done with a goal to hurt, harm, or humiliate. With bullying, there is often a power imbalance between those involved, with power defined as elevated social status, being physically larger, or as part of a group against an individual. Students who bully perceive their target as vulnerable in some way and often find satisfaction in harming them.

In normal conflict, children self-monitor their behavior. They read cues to know if lines are crossed, and then modify their behavior in response. Children guided by empathy usually realize they have hurt someone and will want to stop their negative behavior. On the other hand, children intending to cause harm and whose behavior goes beyond normal conflict will continue their behavior even when they know it's hurting someone.

完整版

Why conflict isn’t all bad and why no one ever deserves to be bullied

If you are in a relationship with another human being, whether it’s a good friend or just someone who sits next to you in school, the chances are pretty good that you will be in conflict with that person at some point or have already had a conflict with that person. Where there are two people in a relationship, there likely will be disagreements and changes.

One friend might want to play video games; the other might want to go outside. One friend wants to go shopping; the other really doesn’t like shopping. Your classmate always wants to be first in line and so do you. Your brothers fight over who has a bigger part of their room, trying to make sure it’s exactly the same down to the inch. Things like that happen every day.

Conflict is a natural part of human relationships as people grow and change. Even though it can cause us stress and can hurt, conflict is not bullying. Conflict happens between two people who are equal in the relationship (think: friends or classmates or co-workers) but have two different points of view about what’s going on. Sometimes this escalates into a disagreement that’s so strong people become really emotional. There might be strong words used and lots of big feelings involved. It may take time to sort things out.

In conflict, when things are equal between people, both sides usually want the issue to be resolved. They don’t want the conflict to keep going on; they want to make things better and they want the relationship to continue in a healthy way. Neither person wants to keep hurting the other, so both people will try to do things to improve the situation. Sometimes, conflict can even be helpful in a relationship that needs to change, providing an opportunity to improve something that’s not going right between the parties.

With bullying, the person (or group of people) who is doing the bullying means to hurt the other person. The hurt or harm is done on purpose to make the bullying target feel like less of a person. There is always something unequal about the relationship between the two people; maybe the person bullying is physically stronger and creates fear because of that, or maybe the person bullying is more popular and has the kind of social power that can turn a whole group against one person.

Whichever type of power a person with bullying behavior has, they will use it over the person who is being bullied to make them feel less than who they are. Of course, the person who is being bullied does not want this treatment and did nothing to deserve being treated this way.

Bullying scenarios might look like this: Someone convinces a group to tease another student based on their looks; someone threatens to beat a person up because of how they talk; somebody posts something untrue and hurtful online about someone else; or someone trips a classmate and makes everyone laugh at the person falling down. The harm is done deliberately and the intent is to cause the other person to suffer in some way.

The bullying behavior is usually repeated, or threatened to be repeated, over and over. Someone who is bullying may decide to leave out a friend by giving them the cold shoulder and excluding them from group activities. Someone may use a false statement or other mean word toward another every time they see them, or go on social media in an attempt to damage their reputation. Even the threat of behavior like this causes unwanted and undeserved pain for the target.

Think about it this way:
  • Conflict, while sometimes uncomfortable, can be an opportunity for equal partners in the situation to learn how to solve problems. This will happen by both people working the problem out through healthy and positive means.
  • Bullying is done by someone perceived to be more powerful than the target and is unwanted, negative, and meant to cause harm to the bullying target through physically or emotionally damaging means that are repeated or threatened to be repeated.

 
The next time you are in a conflict with someone (and there will likely be a next time!), try and remember that inside every conflict is a hidden opportunity to make your relationship better by learning to speak up for yourself and express your needs. Remember that conflict between two human beings is normal and is bound to happen.

Remember as well, that bullying is not the same as conflict. Bullying is meant to cause hurt or harm. Bullying is not something that anyone deserves to have happen to them and they have the right to feel safe.

Conflict Resolution

The difference between bullying and conflict is important to note, because conflict resolution or mediation strategies are sometimes misused to solve bullying problems. These strategies can send the message that both children are partly right and partly wrong, or that “We need to work out the conflict between you two.” These messages are not appropriate in cases of bullying (or in any situation where someone is being victimized). The appropriate message to the child who is being bullied should be “Bullying is wrong and no one deserves to be bullied. We are going to do everything we can to stop what is happening to you.”

Teen Perspective:

In one way or another, conflict is a part of everyday experience. Even if it is something small, which it typically is, there is the constant navigation of the complexities of human relationships. This is normal, and minor conflicts typically don’t make someone feel unsafe or threatened.

The questions to ask yourself when you are unsure about the tone of a certain conversation or encounter to determine if it is bullying include:
  • Are we equals in this situation
  • Do I feel victimized or targeted by an individual or a group
  • Do I feel safe
  • Do I feel that the person or group has intentionally hurt or humiliated me

Sometimes, it can be easy to minimize a bullying situation because you don’t really want to deal with the realities of what is happening to you. It is easy to get into a pattern of qualifying bullying as conflict in order to avoid facing the actual problem, when really it is something that you don’t deserve and something that requires outside intervention. It can be helpful to ask these questions to yourself, as it can help you sort out the reality of your particular situation.

Blog Post

Is it a Conflict or is it Bullying? Helping Our Kids Learn the Difference.
Written by staff at PACER's National Bullying Prevention Center

Third graders Nick and Kevin weren’t close friends, but they played foursquare together every recess they could. They battled every point during games that were always loud because the foursquare group was serious about the game. There were often disagreements about fouls and rules but they were generally able to work it out. The adults on recess duty did a nice job of monitoring the players, and they carried laminated sets of rules in case the players needed “help” with disputes. Yet, “It’s not fair!” was often shouted across the playground during recess.

One day Kevin came home and told his mother, Jennifer, that he’d been bullied. Jennifer, alarmed, asked for details.

“Nick pushed me on the playground,” Kevin said. He told Jennifer that he and Nick had argued about a ball that was “on the line,” and that a teacher asked both boys to sit on the bench to cool off during the rest of recess. “It’s not fair! He started it, but we both got punished,” Kevin said. Kevin didn’t think that Nick’s apology was punishment enough.

Had Nick bullied Kevin? Was Nick too aggressive, but not to the point of bullying Kevin? Or were both boys at fault? Jennifer wasn’t sure what to think. She called the school to ask for more details.

When a parent hears a story like this, it isn’t always clear what has happened or what the consequences should be. Jennifer was torn between feeling she might not have heard the whole story, and wanting to fix things for Kevin.

Here are some helpful ways to distinguish between a conflict and bullying behavior:

Conflict looks like:
  • Disagreement or argument in which both sides express their views
  • Equal power between those involved
  • Behavior usually stops when one child realizes they are hurting another

 
Bullying looks like:
  • Intent of behavior is to hurt, harm, or humiliate
  • Person bullying has more “power” such as being more popular or physically stronger
  • Negative behavior continues even when hurt or harm occurs

 
It can be hard for parents when their children are involved in difficult, confusing situations. Nevertheless, it’s important for parents to realize that conflict between children is inevitable – and that sometimes their child won’t like or agree with the outcome. Parents can help their children handle these situations by:
  • Asking open-ended questions about what happened
  • Listening more than talking
  • Offering support
  • Helping their child problem solve

 
It’s easier for a child to confide what is happening to them when they know their parent is in their corner. Conflict situations are great teachable moments. Parents can help their children learn the skills necessary to express their own views and help create their own solutions.

A cautionary note: if behavior crosses the line from conflict to bullying, it’s not up to the child being bullied to fix the situation. While it can be important for the child to help create a plan for change, adults are responsible for making and enforcing rules so that all the children involved are safe.
 
中文翻译:
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1778
原文出处:http://www.pacer.org/bullying/ ... g.asp

校园欺凌的定义是什么?

豌豆爸爸 发表了文章 • 0 个评论 • 59 次浏览 • 2017-08-08 14:08 • 来自相关话题

 浓缩版
Bullying is an intentional behavior that hurts, harms, or humiliates a student, either physically or emotionally, and can happen while at school, in the community, or online. Those bullying often have more social or physical “power,” while those targeted have difficulty stopping the behavior. The behavior is typically repeated, though it can be a one-time incident.

Students often describe bullying as when “someone makes you feel less about who you are as a person.”

Note: Definitions vary greatly. These are not legal definitions. Find your state’s law and definition at StopBullying.gov
 
完整版

What is bullying? At first glance, it might appear that this behavior is easy to define. A common image of bullying might be of a physically intimidating boy beating up a smaller classmate, or of one child shoving another inside a hallway locker. While that is still considered bullying, it's important to know that bullying behaviors can be much more complex and varied than historical stereotypes.

For example, while some bullying is physical and easy to recognize, bullying can also occur quietly and covertly, through gossip or on a smart phone or the internet, causing emotional damage.

As a starting point, there are elements that are included in most definitions of bullying. Although definitions vary from source to source, most agree that an act is defined as bullying when:

the behavior hurts, humiliates, or harms another person physically or emotionally, and
those targeted by the behavior have difficulty stopping the action directed at them, and struggle to defend themselves, and there is also a real or perceived “imbalance of power,” which is described as when the student with the bullying behavior has more “power,” either physically, socially, or emotionally, such as a higher social status, or is physically larger or emotionally intimidating, and
repetitive behavior; however, bullying can occur in a single incident if that incident is either very severe or arises from a pattern of behavior


Many definitions also include:
The types of bullying: The behavior can be overt and direct, with physical behaviors such as fighting, hitting, or name calling, or it can be covert with emotional-social interactions, such as gossiping or leaving someone out on purpose. Bullying can also happen in person, online, or through smart phones and texts.Intent on the part of the student with bullying behavior: “It is intentional, meaning the act is done willfully, knowingly, and with deliberation to hurt or harm.” But there is some controversy with this statement as some assert that not all bullying behavior is done with intent or that the individual bullying doesn’t always realize that their behavior is hurting another individual.Distinction about amount and duration: Many definitions indicate that bullying is “repeated,” but the reality is that bullying can be circumstantial or chronic. It might be the result of a single situation, such as being the new student at school, or it might be behavior that has been directed at the individual for a long period of time.The implications for all students: It is also important to note that bullying is not just about the implications for those targeted by the behaviors, but that the behavior can impact all students in the school, including those who witness the behavior and those that engage in the behavior.Additional factors: These can include the differentiation between bullying and harassment, enumeration of protected classes, statements around the use of technology, how the behavior impacts educational performance, and the physical locations that would fall under the jurisdiction of school sanctions.

Students often describe bullying as when “someone makes you feel less about who you are as a person.”

Note: This is not a legal definition. Rather it is a way to help students understand what bullying is. For a legal definition, consult your state’s law on bullying. You can find your state’s law at StopBullying.gov.
 
中文翻译:
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1777
原文出处:http://www.pacer.org/bullying/ ... d.asp 查看全部

 浓缩版
Bullying is an intentional behavior that hurts, harms, or humiliates a student, either physically or emotionally, and can happen while at school, in the community, or online. Those bullying often have more social or physical “power,” while those targeted have difficulty stopping the behavior. The behavior is typically repeated, though it can be a one-time incident.

Students often describe bullying as when “someone makes you feel less about who you are as a person.”

Note: Definitions vary greatly. These are not legal definitions. Find your state’s law and definition at StopBullying.gov
 
完整版

What is bullying? At first glance, it might appear that this behavior is easy to define. A common image of bullying might be of a physically intimidating boy beating up a smaller classmate, or of one child shoving another inside a hallway locker. While that is still considered bullying, it's important to know that bullying behaviors can be much more complex and varied than historical stereotypes.

For example, while some bullying is physical and easy to recognize, bullying can also occur quietly and covertly, through gossip or on a smart phone or the internet, causing emotional damage.

As a starting point, there are elements that are included in most definitions of bullying. Although definitions vary from source to source, most agree that an act is defined as bullying when:

the behavior hurts, humiliates, or harms another person physically or emotionally, and
those targeted by the behavior have difficulty stopping the action directed at them, and struggle to defend themselves, and there is also a real or perceived “imbalance of power,” which is described as when the student with the bullying behavior has more “power,” either physically, socially, or emotionally, such as a higher social status, or is physically larger or emotionally intimidating, and
repetitive behavior; however, bullying can occur in a single incident if that incident is either very severe or arises from a pattern of behavior


Many definitions also include:
  • The types of bullying: The behavior can be overt and direct, with physical behaviors such as fighting, hitting, or name calling, or it can be covert with emotional-social interactions, such as gossiping or leaving someone out on purpose. Bullying can also happen in person, online, or through smart phones and texts.
  • Intent on the part of the student with bullying behavior: “It is intentional, meaning the act is done willfully, knowingly, and with deliberation to hurt or harm.” But there is some controversy with this statement as some assert that not all bullying behavior is done with intent or that the individual bullying doesn’t always realize that their behavior is hurting another individual.
  • Distinction about amount and duration: Many definitions indicate that bullying is “repeated,” but the reality is that bullying can be circumstantial or chronic. It might be the result of a single situation, such as being the new student at school, or it might be behavior that has been directed at the individual for a long period of time.
  • The implications for all students: It is also important to note that bullying is not just about the implications for those targeted by the behaviors, but that the behavior can impact all students in the school, including those who witness the behavior and those that engage in the behavior.
  • Additional factors: These can include the differentiation between bullying and harassment, enumeration of protected classes, statements around the use of technology, how the behavior impacts educational performance, and the physical locations that would fall under the jurisdiction of school sanctions.


Students often describe bullying as when “someone makes you feel less about who you are as a person.”

Note: This is not a legal definition. Rather it is a way to help students understand what bullying is. For a legal definition, consult your state’s law on bullying. You can find your state’s law at StopBullying.gov.
 
中文翻译:
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1777
原文出处:http://www.pacer.org/bullying/ ... d.asp

美国梅奥诊所:服用MAOI治疗抑郁需要低酪胺饮食吗?

豌豆爸爸 发表了文章 • 0 个评论 • 90 次浏览 • 2017-07-01 19:24 • 来自相关话题

Tyramine (TIE-ruh-meen) is an amino acid that helps regulate blood pressure. It occurs naturally in the body and it's found in certain foods. Medications called monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) block an enzyme known as monoamine oxidase, which breaks down excess tyramine in the body. Blocking this enzyme helps relieve depression.

If you take an MAOI and you eat high-tyramine foods, tyramine can quickly reach dangerous levels. This can cause a serious spike in blood pressure and require emergency treatment.

Avoid consuming foods that are high in tyramine if you take an MAOI. You may need to continue following a low-tyramine diet for a few weeks after you stop the medication.

Tyramine is naturally found in small amounts in protein-containing foods. As these foods age, the tyramine levels increase. Tyramine amounts can vary among foods due to different processing, storage and preparation methods. You can't reduce the amount of tyramine in a food by cooking it.

Examples of foods high in tyramine include:
Strong or aged cheeses, such as aged cheddar, Swiss and parmesan; blue cheeses such as Stilton and Gorgonzola; and Camembert. Cheeses made from pasteurized milk — such as American cheese, cottage cheese, ricotta, farmer cheese and cream cheese — are less likely to contain high levels of tyramine.Cured meats, which are meats treated with salt and nitrate or nitrite, such as dry-type summer sausages, pepperoni and salami.Smoked or processed meats, such as hot dogs, bologna, bacon, corned beef or smoked fish.Pickled or fermented foods, such as sauerkraut, kimchee, caviar, tofu or pickles.Sauces, such as soy sauce, shrimp sauce, fish sauce, miso and teriyaki sauce.Soybeans and soybean products.Snow peas, broad beans (fava beans) and their pods.Dried or overripe fruits, such as raisins or prunes, or overripe bananas or avocados.Meat tenderizers or meat prepared with tenderizers.Yeast-extract spreads, such as Marmite, brewer's yeast or sour dough bread.Alcoholic beverages, such as beer — especially tap or homebrewed beer — red wine, sherry and liqueurs.Combination foods that contain any of the above ingredients.Improperly stored foods or spoiled foods. While you're taking an MAOI, your doctor may recommend eating only fresh foods — not leftovers or foods past their freshness dates.

MAOIs, although effective, generally have been replaced by newer antidepressants that are safer and cause fewer side effects. Still, an MAOI is a good option for some people. In certain cases, an MAOI relieves depression when other treatments have failed.

Examples of MAOIs that are used for depression include:
Isocarboxazid (Marplan)Phenelzine (Nardil)Selegiline (Emsam)Tranylcypromine (Parnate)

Selegiline in patch form (Emsam) delivers the medication through your skin. If you use the lowest dose of the patch, you may not need to be as strict with the foods you eat, but check with your doctor or pharmacist.

It's wise to learn the emergency signs of a rapid and severe rise in blood pressure (hypertensive crisis), which may include:
Severe headacheNausea and vomitingSweating and severe anxietyNosebleedsFast heartbeatChest painChanges in visionShortness of breathConfusion

Rarely, a severe increase in blood pressure can lead to bleeding in the brain (hemorrhagic stroke).

If you take an MAOI, be prepared. Ask your doctor:
For a list of foods to avoid — make sure you understand exactly what's safe for you and what isn'tWhat to do if you accidently eat or drink something with too much tyramine, so you have a plan in place
 
中文翻译:
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1751
原文出处:http://www.mayoclinic.org/dise ... 58035 查看全部

Tyramine (TIE-ruh-meen) is an amino acid that helps regulate blood pressure. It occurs naturally in the body and it's found in certain foods. Medications called monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) block an enzyme known as monoamine oxidase, which breaks down excess tyramine in the body. Blocking this enzyme helps relieve depression.

If you take an MAOI and you eat high-tyramine foods, tyramine can quickly reach dangerous levels. This can cause a serious spike in blood pressure and require emergency treatment.

Avoid consuming foods that are high in tyramine if you take an MAOI. You may need to continue following a low-tyramine diet for a few weeks after you stop the medication.

Tyramine is naturally found in small amounts in protein-containing foods. As these foods age, the tyramine levels increase. Tyramine amounts can vary among foods due to different processing, storage and preparation methods. You can't reduce the amount of tyramine in a food by cooking it.

Examples of foods high in tyramine include:
  • Strong or aged cheeses, such as aged cheddar, Swiss and parmesan; blue cheeses such as Stilton and Gorgonzola; and Camembert. Cheeses made from pasteurized milk — such as American cheese, cottage cheese, ricotta, farmer cheese and cream cheese — are less likely to contain high levels of tyramine.
  • Cured meats, which are meats treated with salt and nitrate or nitrite, such as dry-type summer sausages, pepperoni and salami.
  • Smoked or processed meats, such as hot dogs, bologna, bacon, corned beef or smoked fish.
  • Pickled or fermented foods, such as sauerkraut, kimchee, caviar, tofu or pickles.
  • Sauces, such as soy sauce, shrimp sauce, fish sauce, miso and teriyaki sauce.
  • Soybeans and soybean products.
  • Snow peas, broad beans (fava beans) and their pods.
  • Dried or overripe fruits, such as raisins or prunes, or overripe bananas or avocados.
  • Meat tenderizers or meat prepared with tenderizers.
  • Yeast-extract spreads, such as Marmite, brewer's yeast or sour dough bread.
  • Alcoholic beverages, such as beer — especially tap or homebrewed beer — red wine, sherry and liqueurs.
  • Combination foods that contain any of the above ingredients.
  • Improperly stored foods or spoiled foods. While you're taking an MAOI, your doctor may recommend eating only fresh foods — not leftovers or foods past their freshness dates.


MAOIs, although effective, generally have been replaced by newer antidepressants that are safer and cause fewer side effects. Still, an MAOI is a good option for some people. In certain cases, an MAOI relieves depression when other treatments have failed.

Examples of MAOIs that are used for depression include:
  • Isocarboxazid (Marplan)
  • Phenelzine (Nardil)
  • Selegiline (Emsam)
  • Tranylcypromine (Parnate)


Selegiline in patch form (Emsam) delivers the medication through your skin. If you use the lowest dose of the patch, you may not need to be as strict with the foods you eat, but check with your doctor or pharmacist.

It's wise to learn the emergency signs of a rapid and severe rise in blood pressure (hypertensive crisis), which may include:
  • Severe headache
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Sweating and severe anxiety
  • Nosebleeds
  • Fast heartbeat
  • Chest pain
  • Changes in vision
  • Shortness of breath
  • Confusion


Rarely, a severe increase in blood pressure can lead to bleeding in the brain (hemorrhagic stroke).

If you take an MAOI, be prepared. Ask your doctor:
  • For a list of foods to avoid — make sure you understand exactly what's safe for you and what isn't
  • What to do if you accidently eat or drink something with too much tyramine, so you have a plan in place

 
中文翻译:
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1751
原文出处:http://www.mayoclinic.org/dise ... 58035

美国FDA:万圣节安全,服装、糖果和美瞳隐形眼镜

豌豆爸爸 发表了文章 • 0 个评论 • 100 次浏览 • 2017-10-23 11:18 • 来自相关话题

Whether you’re a ghost or zombie, vampire or witch, poor costume choices—including decorative (colored) contact lenses and flammable costumes—and face paint allergies can cause injuries that haunt you long after Halloween.

Enjoy a safe and happy Halloween by following these guidelines from FDA, the Consumer Product Safety Commission, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:
Wear costumes that say “flame resistant” on the label. If you make your costume, use flame-resistant fabrics such as polyester or nylon.Wear bright, reflective costumes or add strips of reflective tape so you’ll be more visible; make sure the costumes aren’t so long that you’re in danger of tripping.Wear makeup and hats rather than masks that can obscure your vision.Test the makeup you plan to use in advance. Put a small amount on the arm of the person who will be wearing it. If a rash, redness, swelling, or other signs of irritation develop where the makeup was applied, that's a sign of a possible allergy.Vibrantly colored makeup is popular at Halloween. Check FDA’s list of color additives to see if the colors are FDA approved. If they aren’t approved for their intended use, don’t use them. This is especially important for colored makeup around the eyes.Don’t wear decorative (colored) contact lenses unless you have seen an eye care professional for a proper fitting and been given instructions for how to use the lenses.
 
Safe Treats

Eating sweet treats is also a big part of Halloween fun.
Before you or your children go trick-or-treating, remember these tips:
•Don’t eat candy until it has been inspected at home.
•Eat a snack before heading out to avoid the temptation of nibbling on a treat before it has been inspected.
•In case of a food allergy, check the label to ensure the allergen isn’t present. Tell children not to accept—or eat—anything that isn’t commercially wrapped.
•Parents of very young children should remove any choking hazards such as gum, peanuts, hard candies, or small toys from the Halloween bags.
•Inspect commercially wrapped treats for signs of tampering, such as an unusual appearance or discoloration, tiny pinholes, or tears in wrappers. Throw away anything that looks suspicious.
 
For partygoers and party throwers, FDA recommends the following tips for two seasonal favorites:

•Unpasteurized juices and juices that have not been further processed are at higher risk of food- borne illness. Look for the warning label to identify juice that hasn’t been pasteurized or otherwise processed, especially packaged juice products made on site. If unsure, always ask if juice has been pasteurized or not. Normally, juice in boxes, bottles or cans from your grocer’s frozen food case, refrigerated section, or shelf has been pasteurized.

•Before bobbing for apples—a favorite Halloween game—reduce the risk of bacteria by thoroughly rinsing the apples under cool running water. As an added precaution, use a produce brush to remove surface dirt.
 
Eye Safety

FDA joins eye care professionals—including the American Academy of Ophthalmology, the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, the Contact Lens Association of Ophthalmologists and the American Optometric Association—in discouraging consumers from using illegal decorative (colored) contact lenses. These are contact lenses that have not been approved by FDA for safety and effectiveness. Consumers should only use brand name contact lenses from well-known contact lens companies.
 
If you have never worn contact lenses before, Halloween should not be the first time you wear them. Experts warn that buying any kind of contact lenses—which are medical devices and regulated as such—without an examination and a prescription from an eye care professional can cause serious eye disorders and infections, which may lead to permanent vision loss. Despite the fact that it’s illegal to sell decorative contact lenses without a valid prescription, FDA says the lenses are sold on the Internet and in retail shops and salons—particularly around Halloween.

The decorative lenses make the wearer’s eyes appear to glow in the dark, create the illusion of vertical “cat eyes,” or change the wearer’s eye color.

Although unauthorized use of decorative contact lenses is a concern year-round, Halloween is the time when people may be inclined to use them, perhaps as costume accessories. When they are bought and used without a valid prescription, without the involvement of a qualified eye care professional, or without appropriate follow-up care, it can lead to significant risks of eye injuries, including blindness.

本文刊载于FDA的消费者更新专栏上,此栏目专门刊载FDA所管理产品的最新消息。

更新日期: October 20, 2017
发布日期: October 26, 2010

中文翻译:
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1815
原文出处:https://www.fda.gov/forconsume ... 3.htm 查看全部


Whether you’re a ghost or zombie, vampire or witch, poor costume choices—including decorative (colored) contact lenses and flammable costumes—and face paint allergies can cause injuries that haunt you long after Halloween.

Enjoy a safe and happy Halloween by following these guidelines from FDA, the Consumer Product Safety Commission, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:
  • Wear costumes that say “flame resistant” on the label. If you make your costume, use flame-resistant fabrics such as polyester or nylon.
  • Wear bright, reflective costumes or add strips of reflective tape so you’ll be more visible; make sure the costumes aren’t so long that you’re in danger of tripping.
  • Wear makeup and hats rather than masks that can obscure your vision.
  • Test the makeup you plan to use in advance. Put a small amount on the arm of the person who will be wearing it. If a rash, redness, swelling, or other signs of irritation develop where the makeup was applied, that's a sign of a possible allergy.
  • Vibrantly colored makeup is popular at Halloween. Check FDA’s list of color additives to see if the colors are FDA approved. If they aren’t approved for their intended use, don’t use them. This is especially important for colored makeup around the eyes.
  • Don’t wear decorative (colored) contact lenses unless you have seen an eye care professional for a proper fitting and been given instructions for how to use the lenses.

 
Safe Treats

Eating sweet treats is also a big part of Halloween fun.
Before you or your children go trick-or-treating, remember these tips:
•Don’t eat candy until it has been inspected at home.
•Eat a snack before heading out to avoid the temptation of nibbling on a treat before it has been inspected.
•In case of a food allergy, check the label to ensure the allergen isn’t present. Tell children not to accept—or eat—anything that isn’t commercially wrapped.
•Parents of very young children should remove any choking hazards such as gum, peanuts, hard candies, or small toys from the Halloween bags.
•Inspect commercially wrapped treats for signs of tampering, such as an unusual appearance or discoloration, tiny pinholes, or tears in wrappers. Throw away anything that looks suspicious.
 
For partygoers and party throwers, FDA recommends the following tips for two seasonal favorites:

•Unpasteurized juices and juices that have not been further processed are at higher risk of food- borne illness. Look for the warning label to identify juice that hasn’t been pasteurized or otherwise processed, especially packaged juice products made on site. If unsure, always ask if juice has been pasteurized or not. Normally, juice in boxes, bottles or cans from your grocer’s frozen food case, refrigerated section, or shelf has been pasteurized.

•Before bobbing for apples—a favorite Halloween game—reduce the risk of bacteria by thoroughly rinsing the apples under cool running water. As an added precaution, use a produce brush to remove surface dirt.
 
Eye Safety

FDA joins eye care professionals—including the American Academy of Ophthalmology, the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, the Contact Lens Association of Ophthalmologists and the American Optometric Association—in discouraging consumers from using illegal decorative (colored) contact lenses. These are contact lenses that have not been approved by FDA for safety and effectiveness. Consumers should only use brand name contact lenses from well-known contact lens companies.
 
If you have never worn contact lenses before, Halloween should not be the first time you wear them. Experts warn that buying any kind of contact lenses—which are medical devices and regulated as such—without an examination and a prescription from an eye care professional can cause serious eye disorders and infections, which may lead to permanent vision loss. Despite the fact that it’s illegal to sell decorative contact lenses without a valid prescription, FDA says the lenses are sold on the Internet and in retail shops and salons—particularly around Halloween.

The decorative lenses make the wearer’s eyes appear to glow in the dark, create the illusion of vertical “cat eyes,” or change the wearer’s eye color.

Although unauthorized use of decorative contact lenses is a concern year-round, Halloween is the time when people may be inclined to use them, perhaps as costume accessories. When they are bought and used without a valid prescription, without the involvement of a qualified eye care professional, or without appropriate follow-up care, it can lead to significant risks of eye injuries, including blindness.

本文刊载于FDA的消费者更新专栏上,此栏目专门刊载FDA所管理产品的最新消息。

更新日期: October 20, 2017
发布日期: October 26, 2010

中文翻译:
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1815
原文出处:https://www.fda.gov/forconsume ... 3.htm

做为学生,如果你将欺凌行为报告给成人但于事无补该怎么办?

豌豆爸爸 发表了文章 • 3 个评论 • 105 次浏览 • 2017-08-08 14:46 • 来自相关话题

 浓缩版
Have you told someone about being bullied and nothing has changed? Don’t give up! Did you know that you have the legal right to be safe at school? If the bullying continues even after you told an adult, know that there are laws designed to protect you (find your state law or policy at StopBullying.gov). It is very important for students to reach out to another trusted adult and ask for help again. This adult can be a parent, a teacher, a coach, or anyone from the community. Let them know that you need their help and that you wouldn’t be coming to them if you could fix the situation on your own.

完整版

If you told an adult about a bullying situation and it wasn’t helpful, don’t give up! Be a self-advocate. Speak up for yourself and let another adult know what you need in order to feel safe. Every student has the right to feel safe at school.

All states have laws or policies to address bullying prevention in schools. Some adults may not be aware of these laws or realize that the school has a bullying prevention policy in place. Share your knowledge that there is a law, and keep talking until someone understands and gives you support. There are people who care and will help you.

When speaking to a trusted adult, whether it be a school administrator, a teacher, counselor, or another adult in the community, share important information with them, such as:
a description of the bullyinga reminder that there are laws outlining the school’s responsibility in handling bullying situationsa discussion of the school’s bullying prevention policy

You may have additional protections when the bullying is about race, color, national origin, age, sex, religion, or disability. This is called harassment and there is a federal law.

On your own, or with the help of an adult, create an action plan. Write down what is happening to you with details about where it happens and who is involved. Think about what you can do to change your situation or what would help you gain control over the situation. PACER’s Student Action Plan can be a great place to start this process.

Bullying hurts, it’s emotional, but know that you do not have to deal with it alone. The first person may not have been able to help, but keep going. There are adults who will listen, be there for you, and support you.

Blog
Read the article written by PACER staff, which was posted to Disney’s Babble blog: Speaking up about bullying isn’t tattling and our kids need to know the difference.
 
中文翻译:
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1787
原文出处:http://www.pacer.org/bullying/ ... t.asp 查看全部

 浓缩版
Have you told someone about being bullied and nothing has changed? Don’t give up! Did you know that you have the legal right to be safe at school? If the bullying continues even after you told an adult, know that there are laws designed to protect you (find your state law or policy at StopBullying.gov). It is very important for students to reach out to another trusted adult and ask for help again. This adult can be a parent, a teacher, a coach, or anyone from the community. Let them know that you need their help and that you wouldn’t be coming to them if you could fix the situation on your own.

完整版

If you told an adult about a bullying situation and it wasn’t helpful, don’t give up! Be a self-advocate. Speak up for yourself and let another adult know what you need in order to feel safe. Every student has the right to feel safe at school.

All states have laws or policies to address bullying prevention in schools. Some adults may not be aware of these laws or realize that the school has a bullying prevention policy in place. Share your knowledge that there is a law, and keep talking until someone understands and gives you support. There are people who care and will help you.

When speaking to a trusted adult, whether it be a school administrator, a teacher, counselor, or another adult in the community, share important information with them, such as:
  • a description of the bullying
  • a reminder that there are laws outlining the school’s responsibility in handling bullying situations
  • a discussion of the school’s bullying prevention policy


You may have additional protections when the bullying is about race, color, national origin, age, sex, religion, or disability. This is called harassment and there is a federal law.

On your own, or with the help of an adult, create an action plan. Write down what is happening to you with details about where it happens and who is involved. Think about what you can do to change your situation or what would help you gain control over the situation. PACER’s Student Action Plan can be a great place to start this process.

Bullying hurts, it’s emotional, but know that you do not have to deal with it alone. The first person may not have been able to help, but keep going. There are adults who will listen, be there for you, and support you.

Blog
Read the article written by PACER staff, which was posted to Disney’s Babble blog: Speaking up about bullying isn’t tattling and our kids need to know the difference.
 
中文翻译:
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1787
原文出处:http://www.pacer.org/bullying/ ... t.asp

孩子在学校受到欺凌,我该如何与学校有效沟通以确保欺凌不再发生?

豌豆爸爸 发表了文章 • 1 个评论 • 83 次浏览 • 2017-08-08 14:42 • 来自相关话题

 浓缩版
When your child is the target of bullying, a parent’s first response is often an emotional one, followed by a sense of wanting to know the most effective, action-oriented response. Building positive relationships between the school, parents, and students will ensure that a plan and timeline of action can be quickly set in place to prevent further bullying.

完整版

It can be heartbreaking for parents to learn that their child is being bullied at school. It is difficult for parents to know what to do when a report of bullying is made, and if they should have done something ahead of time that might have influenced what happened to their child. Developing positive relationships with teachers and staff, while using effective communication tools, can help greatly when dealing with a difficult situation such as bullying.

Staff are often the first adults to learn about a school bullying situation, and they can identify different patterns and social patterns with students than parents do at home. Partnerships between parents and school personnel is one of the best ways to prevent further bullying and is essential when bullying is happening at school.

Here are some best practices to guide parents working with school staff toward a healthier and safer school environment for their child:

Speak with an adult at school who knows your child well
Do establish a relationship with your child’s teachers at the beginning of the school year.Do immediately contact a teacher or another staff member (such as the principal or an advisor) who is close to your child if there is a report of bullying.Do understand that they may redirect you to the appropriate person. In some schools this is the dean of students; in other schools, it might be the vice principal who is responsible for bullying and discipline issues. The information on who to contact and how the process will be addressed should be available on your school’s website, from school administration, or in your parent handbook.

Keeping records and written information
Do document and create a timeline for what your child has told you with dates, times, and people involved in the bullying.Do note who you speak to at the school.Do ask about the timing of the follow-up process and who will be getting back to you.Do create a paper file that will hold hard copies of everything.Do keep documentation in that file of all communication with the school, including emails, calls, and letters.Do keep a history of any bullying behavior, documenting face-to-face incidents, or the screenshots, texts, or URLs of bullying directed at your child.

Meeting with school staff
Do bring your file with you, and prepare questions and a list of priorities and concerns to discuss. Know that it’s possible you will feel stressed; try to stay calm and communicate what your child needs as clearly as possible. Ask in advance what the purpose of the meeting will be and who will be there.Do make sure that there is an agenda and that your items are on it.Do repeat what you’ve heard so that you can be sure of what school staff are saying.Do summarize the outcomes at the end of the meeting.Do determine who will be responsible for future steps.Do offer thanks for what staff have done so far and what will happen in the future for your child.

Asking questions
Do ask what, who, when, where, and how questions.Do follow up with constructive phrases such as:
 
“Tell me more about…”“Please explain…”“What do you suggest we do about…”“I think I heard you say… is that correct”

Creating a plan
Do describe the problem clearly while encouraging input from all members of the team.Do allow for brainstorming without evaluating the ideas.Do participate in the brainstorming as an advocate for your child’s needs.Do ask your child for their feedback and ideas on what they’d like to see happen.Do choose a solution by consensus (all parties in agreement). Define who is responsible for an action and when it will be done.Do put that plan in writing, and create a timeline and criteria to evaluate success.Do understand that participation and follow up will be needed from everyone.

While bullying is a difficult situation for everyone involved, a good partnership between the school and parents can help address the situation and prevent further bullying. Using the best practices of good communication strategies and planning, parents can collaborate with the school to ensure a good outcome for their child, whatever the problem.

More details can be found at the interactive online module PACER.org/bullying/resources/parents/working-with-school.asp.
 
中文翻译:
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1786
原文出处:http://www.pacer.org/bullying/ ... l.asp 查看全部

 浓缩版
When your child is the target of bullying, a parent’s first response is often an emotional one, followed by a sense of wanting to know the most effective, action-oriented response. Building positive relationships between the school, parents, and students will ensure that a plan and timeline of action can be quickly set in place to prevent further bullying.

完整版

It can be heartbreaking for parents to learn that their child is being bullied at school. It is difficult for parents to know what to do when a report of bullying is made, and if they should have done something ahead of time that might have influenced what happened to their child. Developing positive relationships with teachers and staff, while using effective communication tools, can help greatly when dealing with a difficult situation such as bullying.

Staff are often the first adults to learn about a school bullying situation, and they can identify different patterns and social patterns with students than parents do at home. Partnerships between parents and school personnel is one of the best ways to prevent further bullying and is essential when bullying is happening at school.

Here are some best practices to guide parents working with school staff toward a healthier and safer school environment for their child:

Speak with an adult at school who knows your child well
  • Do establish a relationship with your child’s teachers at the beginning of the school year.
  • Do immediately contact a teacher or another staff member (such as the principal or an advisor) who is close to your child if there is a report of bullying.
  • Do understand that they may redirect you to the appropriate person. In some schools this is the dean of students; in other schools, it might be the vice principal who is responsible for bullying and discipline issues. The information on who to contact and how the process will be addressed should be available on your school’s website, from school administration, or in your parent handbook.


Keeping records and written information
  • Do document and create a timeline for what your child has told you with dates, times, and people involved in the bullying.
  • Do note who you speak to at the school.
  • Do ask about the timing of the follow-up process and who will be getting back to you.
  • Do create a paper file that will hold hard copies of everything.
  • Do keep documentation in that file of all communication with the school, including emails, calls, and letters.
  • Do keep a history of any bullying behavior, documenting face-to-face incidents, or the screenshots, texts, or URLs of bullying directed at your child.


Meeting with school staff
  • Do bring your file with you, and prepare questions and a list of priorities and concerns to discuss. Know that it’s possible you will feel stressed; try to stay calm and communicate what your child needs as clearly as possible. Ask in advance what the purpose of the meeting will be and who will be there.
  • Do make sure that there is an agenda and that your items are on it.
  • Do repeat what you’ve heard so that you can be sure of what school staff are saying.
  • Do summarize the outcomes at the end of the meeting.
  • Do determine who will be responsible for future steps.
  • Do offer thanks for what staff have done so far and what will happen in the future for your child.


Asking questions
  • Do ask what, who, when, where, and how questions.
  • Do follow up with constructive phrases such as:

 
  1. “Tell me more about…”
  2. “Please explain…”
  3. “What do you suggest we do about…”
  4. “I think I heard you say… is that correct”


Creating a plan
  • Do describe the problem clearly while encouraging input from all members of the team.
  • Do allow for brainstorming without evaluating the ideas.
  • Do participate in the brainstorming as an advocate for your child’s needs.
  • Do ask your child for their feedback and ideas on what they’d like to see happen.
  • Do choose a solution by consensus (all parties in agreement). Define who is responsible for an action and when it will be done.
  • Do put that plan in writing, and create a timeline and criteria to evaluate success.
  • Do understand that participation and follow up will be needed from everyone.


While bullying is a difficult situation for everyone involved, a good partnership between the school and parents can help address the situation and prevent further bullying. Using the best practices of good communication strategies and planning, parents can collaborate with the school to ensure a good outcome for their child, whatever the problem.

More details can be found at the interactive online module PACER.org/bullying/resources/parents/working-with-school.asp.
 
中文翻译:
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1786
原文出处:http://www.pacer.org/bullying/ ... l.asp

父母改变孩子欺凌行为的策略

豌豆爸爸 发表了文章 • 0 个评论 • 83 次浏览 • 2017-08-08 14:38 • 来自相关话题

浓缩版
When a child is bullying others, it’s important that parents and educators take action. It is equally important for adults to recognize that bullying is about behavior, and they should choose responses that acknowledge behavior can be changed. Reframing the focus from labeling a child as a “bully” to referring to them as a “child with bullying behavior” recognizes that there is capacity for change. While children who are bullying others should be given appropriate consequences for their behavior, adults should be talking with their children to learn why they are bullying others. Children need to understand the impact their behavior has on others and realize the hurt they are causing. With adult guidance, redirecting bullying behavior toward an understanding of differences, as well as the practices of kindness and inclusion, are good strategies for reshaping a child’s behavior.

完整版

Bullying is a learned behavior — and it can be “unlearned” and replaced with more positive behaviors. By talking with your child and taking action, you can teach your child more appropriate ways of handling feelings and responding to peer pressure and conflicts.

While it is important to look into any report of bullying and have it stopped quickly, it is good to remember that children are still developing an awareness of the skills they need to maintain healthy relationships. Their behavior can and does change throughout childhood as their identity is formed.

Finding strategies to assist with the development of positive behaviors can influence bullying behavior in children, at home, or at school. If you suspect or know that your child has been bullying others, here are some things to do right away and on an ongoing basis:
Talk with your child. Children may not always recognize their behavior as bullying. They may see it as “just having fun” and not realize the impact it has on another child. Help them understand what defines bullying and emphasize that this behavior is never appropriate.Explore reasons for the behavior. Find out why your child is behaving in a manner that is harmful to others through an open, nonjudgmental discussion. Here are some helpful tips on having that conversation.Confirm that your child’s behavior is bullying and not the result of a disability. Sometimes, children with disabilities who have certain emotional and behavioral disorders, or are in the process of developing social skills, may act in ways that are mistaken for bullying.Develop an action plan. It’s important to think through the steps that work for you, your child, and your situation. A good tool to use is this Student Action Plan.Teach empathy, respect, and compassion. Children who bully often lack awareness of how others feel or understand how their actions impact someone else. Try to understand your child’s feelings and help your child appreciate how others feel when they are bullied. Let your child know that everyone has feelings and that feelings matter.Make your expectations clear. Let your child know that bullying is not okay under any circumstances and that you will not tolerate it. Let them know that there will be consequences for their behavior. Take immediate action if you learn that he or she is involved in a bullying incident.Provide clear and consistent consequences for bullying. Be specific about what will happen if the bullying continues. Try to find meaningful consequences that fit the situation, such as loss of privileges or activities. If the behavior does not change, consider increasing the significance of the consequences.Teach by example. Help your child learn different ways to resolve conflict and deal with feelings, such as anger, insecurity, or frustration. Teach and reward appropriate behavior.Provide positive feedback. When your child handles conflict well, shows compassion for others, or find a positive way to deal with feelings, provide praise and recognition. Positive reinforcement can help improve behavior and is usually more effective than punishment.Be realistic. It takes time to change behavior. Recognize that there may be setbacks. Be patient as your child learns new ways of handling feelings and conflict. Keep your concern and support visible.

Speaking with school personnel and developing a collaborative relationship with school staff can also be very helpful in changing a child’s behavior. Reach out to those who work with your child at school and share information about your concerns.

Here are some other tips for establishing relationships in your child's school or community:
Establish good communication with your child’s teachers and coaches at the start of the school year.Speak with school staff. Talk to the principal, dean, counselor, or social worker to determine if the school offers a bullying prevention program and how your child might be involved.Research ways for your child to be involved in groups that encourage cooperative relationships and focus on working with others.Seek help from your community. It’s important to find resources in both the school and community. Your child’s doctor, leaders of youth groups, coaches, or mental health practitioners can help you and your child learn how to understand and deal with bullying behavior.

博客

Read the article written by PACER staff, which was posted to Disney’s Babble blog:, What if Your Child Is the One Doing the Bullying?
 
中文翻译:
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1785
原文出处:http://www.pacer.org/bullying/ ... r.asp 查看全部


浓缩版
When a child is bullying others, it’s important that parents and educators take action. It is equally important for adults to recognize that bullying is about behavior, and they should choose responses that acknowledge behavior can be changed. Reframing the focus from labeling a child as a “bully” to referring to them as a “child with bullying behavior” recognizes that there is capacity for change. While children who are bullying others should be given appropriate consequences for their behavior, adults should be talking with their children to learn why they are bullying others. Children need to understand the impact their behavior has on others and realize the hurt they are causing. With adult guidance, redirecting bullying behavior toward an understanding of differences, as well as the practices of kindness and inclusion, are good strategies for reshaping a child’s behavior.

完整版

Bullying is a learned behavior — and it can be “unlearned” and replaced with more positive behaviors. By talking with your child and taking action, you can teach your child more appropriate ways of handling feelings and responding to peer pressure and conflicts.

While it is important to look into any report of bullying and have it stopped quickly, it is good to remember that children are still developing an awareness of the skills they need to maintain healthy relationships. Their behavior can and does change throughout childhood as their identity is formed.

Finding strategies to assist with the development of positive behaviors can influence bullying behavior in children, at home, or at school. If you suspect or know that your child has been bullying others, here are some things to do right away and on an ongoing basis:
  • Talk with your child. Children may not always recognize their behavior as bullying. They may see it as “just having fun” and not realize the impact it has on another child. Help them understand what defines bullying and emphasize that this behavior is never appropriate.
  • Explore reasons for the behavior. Find out why your child is behaving in a manner that is harmful to others through an open, nonjudgmental discussion. Here are some helpful tips on having that conversation.
  • Confirm that your child’s behavior is bullying and not the result of a disability. Sometimes, children with disabilities who have certain emotional and behavioral disorders, or are in the process of developing social skills, may act in ways that are mistaken for bullying.
  • Develop an action plan. It’s important to think through the steps that work for you, your child, and your situation. A good tool to use is this Student Action Plan.
  • Teach empathy, respect, and compassion. Children who bully often lack awareness of how others feel or understand how their actions impact someone else. Try to understand your child’s feelings and help your child appreciate how others feel when they are bullied. Let your child know that everyone has feelings and that feelings matter.
  • Make your expectations clear. Let your child know that bullying is not okay under any circumstances and that you will not tolerate it. Let them know that there will be consequences for their behavior. Take immediate action if you learn that he or she is involved in a bullying incident.
  • Provide clear and consistent consequences for bullying. Be specific about what will happen if the bullying continues. Try to find meaningful consequences that fit the situation, such as loss of privileges or activities. If the behavior does not change, consider increasing the significance of the consequences.
  • Teach by example. Help your child learn different ways to resolve conflict and deal with feelings, such as anger, insecurity, or frustration. Teach and reward appropriate behavior.
  • Provide positive feedback. When your child handles conflict well, shows compassion for others, or find a positive way to deal with feelings, provide praise and recognition. Positive reinforcement can help improve behavior and is usually more effective than punishment.
  • Be realistic. It takes time to change behavior. Recognize that there may be setbacks. Be patient as your child learns new ways of handling feelings and conflict. Keep your concern and support visible.


Speaking with school personnel and developing a collaborative relationship with school staff can also be very helpful in changing a child’s behavior. Reach out to those who work with your child at school and share information about your concerns.

Here are some other tips for establishing relationships in your child's school or community:
  • Establish good communication with your child’s teachers and coaches at the start of the school year.
  • Speak with school staff. Talk to the principal, dean, counselor, or social worker to determine if the school offers a bullying prevention program and how your child might be involved.
  • Research ways for your child to be involved in groups that encourage cooperative relationships and focus on working with others.
  • Seek help from your community. It’s important to find resources in both the school and community. Your child’s doctor, leaders of youth groups, coaches, or mental health practitioners can help you and your child learn how to understand and deal with bullying behavior.


博客

Read the article written by PACER staff, which was posted to Disney’s Babble blog:, What if Your Child Is the One Doing the Bullying?
 
中文翻译:
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1785
原文出处:http://www.pacer.org/bullying/ ... r.asp

为什么使用“欺凌预防”术语,而不用“反欺凌”?

豌豆爸爸 发表了文章 • 0 个评论 • 77 次浏览 • 2017-08-08 14:24 • 来自相关话题

 浓缩版
PACER’s National Bullying Prevention Center uses the term “bullying prevention” instead of “anti-bullying” to place the emphasis on a proactive approach and philosophy, framing bullying as an issue to which there is a solution. While the use of “anti” does appropriately indicate the concept of being against bullying, the focus on “prevention” recognizes that change is ultimately about shifting behavior and attitudes, which can happen through the positive approach of education, awareness, and action.

完整版

At PACER’s National Bullying Prevention Center, our vision is “to make every child safe and to change the culture in our society so that bullying is no longer viewed as acceptable behavior.” The language framing the goal is an important part of this change. It has the potential to influence the view of the issue and, in the best cases, direct ideas that promote positive behavior.

Using the term “bullying prevention” instead of “anti-bullying” places the focus where it should be: on understanding the actions that help prevent bullying from occurring. A term, such as “anti,” which focuses on the negative, often doesn’t allow for the opportunity to change or indicate what society can do about bullying.

Acting to change the behavior is vitally important to preventing bullying. Bullying should not be considered a childhood rite of passage. Instead, bullying behaviors should be viewed as changeable and preventable through education and awareness. Discussions with children that focus on inclusion over exclusion, and showing respect and kindness toward others need to occur frequently as children grow up. When children are brought to better awareness of these issues, they have a greater opportunity to develop empathy and an increased understanding that can ultimately disrupt or interrupt bullying dynamics.

In these ongoing conversations with children or throughout communities, to create a social environment where bullying is not accepted, include discussions on how bullying harms everyone involved — targets, witnesses, and the people who use these damaging behaviors. While “anti” does appropriately express being against bullying, the conversation must include preventative efforts. Discussing the steps necessary to resolve conflicts and promote healthy social interactions between people will lead to a culture focusing on a positive, proactive approach to preventing bullying.
 
中文翻译:
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1782
原文出处:http://www.pacer.org/bullying/ ... n.asp 查看全部

 浓缩版
PACER’s National Bullying Prevention Center uses the term “bullying prevention” instead of “anti-bullying” to place the emphasis on a proactive approach and philosophy, framing bullying as an issue to which there is a solution. While the use of “anti” does appropriately indicate the concept of being against bullying, the focus on “prevention” recognizes that change is ultimately about shifting behavior and attitudes, which can happen through the positive approach of education, awareness, and action.

完整版

At PACER’s National Bullying Prevention Center, our vision is “to make every child safe and to change the culture in our society so that bullying is no longer viewed as acceptable behavior.” The language framing the goal is an important part of this change. It has the potential to influence the view of the issue and, in the best cases, direct ideas that promote positive behavior.

Using the term “bullying prevention” instead of “anti-bullying” places the focus where it should be: on understanding the actions that help prevent bullying from occurring. A term, such as “anti,” which focuses on the negative, often doesn’t allow for the opportunity to change or indicate what society can do about bullying.

Acting to change the behavior is vitally important to preventing bullying. Bullying should not be considered a childhood rite of passage. Instead, bullying behaviors should be viewed as changeable and preventable through education and awareness. Discussions with children that focus on inclusion over exclusion, and showing respect and kindness toward others need to occur frequently as children grow up. When children are brought to better awareness of these issues, they have a greater opportunity to develop empathy and an increased understanding that can ultimately disrupt or interrupt bullying dynamics.

In these ongoing conversations with children or throughout communities, to create a social environment where bullying is not accepted, include discussions on how bullying harms everyone involved — targets, witnesses, and the people who use these damaging behaviors. While “anti” does appropriately express being against bullying, the conversation must include preventative efforts. Discussing the steps necessary to resolve conflicts and promote healthy social interactions between people will lead to a culture focusing on a positive, proactive approach to preventing bullying.
 
中文翻译:
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1782
原文出处:http://www.pacer.org/bullying/ ... n.asp

朋友会欺凌我吗?

豌豆爸爸 发表了文章 • 0 个评论 • 60 次浏览 • 2017-08-08 14:22 • 来自相关话题

 浓缩版
Friends will sometimes have bad days. Friends will sometimes disagree. Friends will sometimes hurt each other's feelings, have an argument, or simply need time away from one another. This is normal and can happen in any friendship, no matter how close. If you are experiencing treatment from a friend that hurts you and you have asked that friend to stop, but it still continues, then that is not friendship. That behavior could be bullying. Friendship behaviors do not include hurting someone on purpose or continually being mean even when asked to stop. A friend will change or be remorseful for her behavior if she finds out she's hurting you. If you aren't certain if what is happening is part of a normal friendship or if it is bullying, talk to an adult you trust and get help sorting out the relationship. And yes, it is okay (and the right thing to do) to ask for help.

完整版

Is it possible that someone we call a friend, or even a best friend, is the very person that treats us the worst? How can the person with whom we share jokes, snacks, and secrets be someone who hurts us?

With relationships, it’s natural to have conflict as we learn how to be friends and communicate. Sometimes we make mistakes with friends, hurt their feelings, apologize for what we’ve done, and move on. Through making mistakes in our relationships, we learn what to do with the people around us — as well as what not to do. It’s normal to have conflicts or disagreements with friends as we grow up; that’s how we learn to be better friends and communicators.

What’s not okay — and is never deserved — is when someone we are close to decides to threaten us, to hurt our feelings intentionally, misuse our trust, or make us feel less than who we are. If someone we call a friend repeatedly uses bullying behavior — such as belittling who we are, trying to control us, or attempting to tell us who we can be friends with — that’s no longer a friend. That type of behavior is outside of friendship in every way and has to be called what it is: bullying.

This is a painful and sometimes unacknowledged type of bullying that is hard to understand and even harder to endure. Here’s how to recognize when those we are close to are bullying us, even though we call them “friends.”

Below are some examples to help recognize if bullying is happening in your relationships:
You are made fun of, called names, or teased for your appearance or what you wearYou are mocked or mimicked for what you say or how you actYou are laughed at when people know you’re hurting from being teased or physically abusedYou are told who you can be friends with or what you can and can’t doYou are purposefully excluded from events or get-togethers in which other friends are invitedYou have told your friends to stop the negative behavior and they continue anywayYou are made to feel that you don’t live up to the standards of the friend group
 
If you or someone you care about is being bullied by a “friend,” please find an adult you trust and tell them what’s going on as soon as possible. Bullying like this often does not stop without intervention. Bullying like this doesn’t go away if you ignore it either. This type of situation will need assistance and advice on making a plan for what to do.

You’ll also need allies, people around you at school or in your neighborhood who will actively support you and have your back. An ally will stand up for you if she feels safe, or be a witness to what’s going on and be able to tell an adult what she saw happen. An ally can help you feel less alone, too, which is a very good thing.

Don’t hesitate for too long when someone you call a friend is repeatedly disrespectful to you and causes you pain when you’ve asked them to stop. If you find you’re always nervous and anxious around a friend because you’re worried about what they might say or do to you, talk to an adult and work out what’s happening. Sometimes it will be a normal consequence of learning to be friends, and sometimes it will be bullying. If it’s bullying, that’s not friendship and it probably never will be. You have the right to be around people who treat you like a friend, and that you can respect and trust.

Teen Perspective

The following is excerpted from a response to a question submitted for the ASK JAMIE column on PACERTeensAgainstBullying.com.

The question came from Scarlett, a 7th grader, who wrote, “I love my friends, but sometimes I feel like they don’t like me much. At school they call me names all the time, then they say they are just joking, but it feels mean and sometimes I feel excluded and sad.”

Ask Jamie’s response: It sounds like you have been facing bullying from your friends but feel unsure of how to handle it, especially since it is veiled as “just a joke.” This is something I, and many others, relate to. It is difficult to know how to respond to a friend who says hurtful comments, since oftentimes they will defend themselves with the “joke” cover.

A general guideline is: If you don’t find it funny but do find it hurtful, then it isn’t okay.

Your friend may very well have intended the comment as a joke, but it is the way it makes you feel that matters. If you feel hurt, unsafe, or targeted by the joke, then ask your friends to stop. If it happens again, and as long as you stay safe, say something like: “I know you probably think that you are just kidding, but the comments you have made are really hurtful, so I would really appreciate if you would stop. I know that if you realized how much your words affected me, you would stop.”

If they cannot respect your requests, then they are not being true friends and, therefore, may not deserve your friendship. Realize that you deserved to be treated with kindness, so any friendships that are offering meanness should be evaluated and its your decision about whether or not to continue the relationship.
 
中文翻译:
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1781
原文出处:http://www.pacer.org/bullying/ ... g.asp 查看全部

 浓缩版
Friends will sometimes have bad days. Friends will sometimes disagree. Friends will sometimes hurt each other's feelings, have an argument, or simply need time away from one another. This is normal and can happen in any friendship, no matter how close. If you are experiencing treatment from a friend that hurts you and you have asked that friend to stop, but it still continues, then that is not friendship. That behavior could be bullying. Friendship behaviors do not include hurting someone on purpose or continually being mean even when asked to stop. A friend will change or be remorseful for her behavior if she finds out she's hurting you. If you aren't certain if what is happening is part of a normal friendship or if it is bullying, talk to an adult you trust and get help sorting out the relationship. And yes, it is okay (and the right thing to do) to ask for help.

完整版

Is it possible that someone we call a friend, or even a best friend, is the very person that treats us the worst? How can the person with whom we share jokes, snacks, and secrets be someone who hurts us?

With relationships, it’s natural to have conflict as we learn how to be friends and communicate. Sometimes we make mistakes with friends, hurt their feelings, apologize for what we’ve done, and move on. Through making mistakes in our relationships, we learn what to do with the people around us — as well as what not to do. It’s normal to have conflicts or disagreements with friends as we grow up; that’s how we learn to be better friends and communicators.

What’s not okay — and is never deserved — is when someone we are close to decides to threaten us, to hurt our feelings intentionally, misuse our trust, or make us feel less than who we are. If someone we call a friend repeatedly uses bullying behavior — such as belittling who we are, trying to control us, or attempting to tell us who we can be friends with — that’s no longer a friend. That type of behavior is outside of friendship in every way and has to be called what it is: bullying.

This is a painful and sometimes unacknowledged type of bullying that is hard to understand and even harder to endure. Here’s how to recognize when those we are close to are bullying us, even though we call them “friends.”

Below are some examples to help recognize if bullying is happening in your relationships:
  • You are made fun of, called names, or teased for your appearance or what you wear
  • You are mocked or mimicked for what you say or how you act
  • You are laughed at when people know you’re hurting from being teased or physically abused
  • You are told who you can be friends with or what you can and can’t do
  • You are purposefully excluded from events or get-togethers in which other friends are invited
  • You have told your friends to stop the negative behavior and they continue anyway
  • You are made to feel that you don’t live up to the standards of the friend group

 
If you or someone you care about is being bullied by a “friend,” please find an adult you trust and tell them what’s going on as soon as possible. Bullying like this often does not stop without intervention. Bullying like this doesn’t go away if you ignore it either. This type of situation will need assistance and advice on making a plan for what to do.

You’ll also need allies, people around you at school or in your neighborhood who will actively support you and have your back. An ally will stand up for you if she feels safe, or be a witness to what’s going on and be able to tell an adult what she saw happen. An ally can help you feel less alone, too, which is a very good thing.

Don’t hesitate for too long when someone you call a friend is repeatedly disrespectful to you and causes you pain when you’ve asked them to stop. If you find you’re always nervous and anxious around a friend because you’re worried about what they might say or do to you, talk to an adult and work out what’s happening. Sometimes it will be a normal consequence of learning to be friends, and sometimes it will be bullying. If it’s bullying, that’s not friendship and it probably never will be. You have the right to be around people who treat you like a friend, and that you can respect and trust.

Teen Perspective

The following is excerpted from a response to a question submitted for the ASK JAMIE column on PACERTeensAgainstBullying.com.

The question came from Scarlett, a 7th grader, who wrote, “I love my friends, but sometimes I feel like they don’t like me much. At school they call me names all the time, then they say they are just joking, but it feels mean and sometimes I feel excluded and sad.”

Ask Jamie’s response: It sounds like you have been facing bullying from your friends but feel unsure of how to handle it, especially since it is veiled as “just a joke.” This is something I, and many others, relate to. It is difficult to know how to respond to a friend who says hurtful comments, since oftentimes they will defend themselves with the “joke” cover.

A general guideline is: If you don’t find it funny but do find it hurtful, then it isn’t okay.

Your friend may very well have intended the comment as a joke, but it is the way it makes you feel that matters. If you feel hurt, unsafe, or targeted by the joke, then ask your friends to stop. If it happens again, and as long as you stay safe, say something like: “I know you probably think that you are just kidding, but the comments you have made are really hurtful, so I would really appreciate if you would stop. I know that if you realized how much your words affected me, you would stop.”

If they cannot respect your requests, then they are not being true friends and, therefore, may not deserve your friendship. Realize that you deserved to be treated with kindness, so any friendships that are offering meanness should be evaluated and its your decision about whether or not to continue the relationship.
 
中文翻译:
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1781
原文出处:http://www.pacer.org/bullying/ ... g.asp

欺凌和骚扰:两者有什么区别?

豌豆爸爸 发表了文章 • 0 个评论 • 46 次浏览 • 2017-08-08 14:18 • 来自相关话题

 浓缩版
Bullying and harassment are often used interchangeably when talking about hurtful or harmful behavior. They are very similar, but in terms of definition, there is an important difference.

Bullying and harassment are similar as they are both about:
power and controlactions that hurt or harm another person physically or emotionallyan imbalance of power between the target and the individual demonstrating the negative behaviorthe target having difficulty stopping the action directed at them
 
The distinction between bullying and harassment is that when the bullying behavior directed at the target is also based on a protected class, that behavior is then defined as harassment. Protected classes include:
racecolorreligionsexagedisabilitynational origin
 
完整版

Although bullying and harassment are often used interchangeably when talking about hurtful or harmful behavior — and the behavior may look the same — there are important distinctions in the definition, laws, and protections for students experiencing harassment.

The first difference is in the definitions of bullying and harassment. For bullying, it’s important to note that while definitions vary from source to source, most agree that an act is defined as bullying when the behavior hurts, harms, or humiliates another person physically or emotionally. Those targeted by bullying behavior struggle to defend themselves and stop the action directed at them. There also is an “imbalance of power.” This means the student demonstrating the bullying behavior has more power; this can be physically, socially, or emotionally (for example, a higher social status, physically larger, or emotionally intimidating).

The definition of harassment outlines that the behavior is similar by its unwanted and hurtful actions. It can include unwelcome conduct such as verbal abuse, graphic or written statements, threats, physical assault, or other conduct that is threatening or humiliating, but the negative behavior is based on a student’s race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. For example, bullying behavior meets the threshold of harassment when a student is being verbally bullied with demeaning language about their disability.

Students experiencing harassment also have protections at the federal level. The Office of Civil Rights (OCR) and the Department of Justice (DOJ) have stated that bullying is considered discriminatory harassment when based on a student’s race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. If a student is experiencing discriminatory harassment, federally funded schools are obligated under federal law to address the behavior.

If you’re looking for more information on how schools are required to address the behavior, visit stopbullying.gov.
 
中文翻译:
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1779
原文出处:http://www.pacer.org/bullying/ ... t.asp 查看全部

 浓缩版
Bullying and harassment are often used interchangeably when talking about hurtful or harmful behavior. They are very similar, but in terms of definition, there is an important difference.

Bullying and harassment are similar as they are both about:
  • power and control
  • actions that hurt or harm another person physically or emotionally
  • an imbalance of power between the target and the individual demonstrating the negative behavior
  • the target having difficulty stopping the action directed at them

 
The distinction between bullying and harassment is that when the bullying behavior directed at the target is also based on a protected class, that behavior is then defined as harassment. Protected classes include:
  • race
  • color
  • religion
  • sex
  • age
  • disability
  • national origin

 
完整版

Although bullying and harassment are often used interchangeably when talking about hurtful or harmful behavior — and the behavior may look the same — there are important distinctions in the definition, laws, and protections for students experiencing harassment.

The first difference is in the definitions of bullying and harassment. For bullying, it’s important to note that while definitions vary from source to source, most agree that an act is defined as bullying when the behavior hurts, harms, or humiliates another person physically or emotionally. Those targeted by bullying behavior struggle to defend themselves and stop the action directed at them. There also is an “imbalance of power.” This means the student demonstrating the bullying behavior has more power; this can be physically, socially, or emotionally (for example, a higher social status, physically larger, or emotionally intimidating).

The definition of harassment outlines that the behavior is similar by its unwanted and hurtful actions. It can include unwelcome conduct such as verbal abuse, graphic or written statements, threats, physical assault, or other conduct that is threatening or humiliating, but the negative behavior is based on a student’s race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. For example, bullying behavior meets the threshold of harassment when a student is being verbally bullied with demeaning language about their disability.

Students experiencing harassment also have protections at the federal level. The Office of Civil Rights (OCR) and the Department of Justice (DOJ) have stated that bullying is considered discriminatory harassment when based on a student’s race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. If a student is experiencing discriminatory harassment, federally funded schools are obligated under federal law to address the behavior.

If you’re looking for more information on how schools are required to address the behavior, visit stopbullying.gov.
 
中文翻译:
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1779
原文出处:http://www.pacer.org/bullying/ ... t.asp

冲突和欺凌:两者有什么区别?

豌豆爸爸 发表了文章 • 0 个评论 • 117 次浏览 • 2017-08-08 14:14 • 来自相关话题

 浓缩版
Bullying is different from conflict.

Conflict is a disagreement or argument in which both sides express their views.
Bullying is negative behavior directed by someone exerting power and control over another person.
Bullying is done with a goal to hurt, harm, or humiliate. With bullying, there is often a power imbalance between those involved, with power defined as elevated social status, being physically larger, or as part of a group against an individual. Students who bully perceive their target as vulnerable in some way and often find satisfaction in harming them.

In normal conflict, children self-monitor their behavior. They read cues to know if lines are crossed, and then modify their behavior in response. Children guided by empathy usually realize they have hurt someone and will want to stop their negative behavior. On the other hand, children intending to cause harm and whose behavior goes beyond normal conflict will continue their behavior even when they know it's hurting someone.

完整版

Why conflict isn’t all bad and why no one ever deserves to be bullied

If you are in a relationship with another human being, whether it’s a good friend or just someone who sits next to you in school, the chances are pretty good that you will be in conflict with that person at some point or have already had a conflict with that person. Where there are two people in a relationship, there likely will be disagreements and changes.

One friend might want to play video games; the other might want to go outside. One friend wants to go shopping; the other really doesn’t like shopping. Your classmate always wants to be first in line and so do you. Your brothers fight over who has a bigger part of their room, trying to make sure it’s exactly the same down to the inch. Things like that happen every day.

Conflict is a natural part of human relationships as people grow and change. Even though it can cause us stress and can hurt, conflict is not bullying. Conflict happens between two people who are equal in the relationship (think: friends or classmates or co-workers) but have two different points of view about what’s going on. Sometimes this escalates into a disagreement that’s so strong people become really emotional. There might be strong words used and lots of big feelings involved. It may take time to sort things out.

In conflict, when things are equal between people, both sides usually want the issue to be resolved. They don’t want the conflict to keep going on; they want to make things better and they want the relationship to continue in a healthy way. Neither person wants to keep hurting the other, so both people will try to do things to improve the situation. Sometimes, conflict can even be helpful in a relationship that needs to change, providing an opportunity to improve something that’s not going right between the parties.

With bullying, the person (or group of people) who is doing the bullying means to hurt the other person. The hurt or harm is done on purpose to make the bullying target feel like less of a person. There is always something unequal about the relationship between the two people; maybe the person bullying is physically stronger and creates fear because of that, or maybe the person bullying is more popular and has the kind of social power that can turn a whole group against one person.

Whichever type of power a person with bullying behavior has, they will use it over the person who is being bullied to make them feel less than who they are. Of course, the person who is being bullied does not want this treatment and did nothing to deserve being treated this way.

Bullying scenarios might look like this: Someone convinces a group to tease another student based on their looks; someone threatens to beat a person up because of how they talk; somebody posts something untrue and hurtful online about someone else; or someone trips a classmate and makes everyone laugh at the person falling down. The harm is done deliberately and the intent is to cause the other person to suffer in some way.

The bullying behavior is usually repeated, or threatened to be repeated, over and over. Someone who is bullying may decide to leave out a friend by giving them the cold shoulder and excluding them from group activities. Someone may use a false statement or other mean word toward another every time they see them, or go on social media in an attempt to damage their reputation. Even the threat of behavior like this causes unwanted and undeserved pain for the target.

Think about it this way:
Conflict, while sometimes uncomfortable, can be an opportunity for equal partners in the situation to learn how to solve problems. This will happen by both people working the problem out through healthy and positive means.Bullying is done by someone perceived to be more powerful than the target and is unwanted, negative, and meant to cause harm to the bullying target through physically or emotionally damaging means that are repeated or threatened to be repeated.
 
The next time you are in a conflict with someone (and there will likely be a next time!), try and remember that inside every conflict is a hidden opportunity to make your relationship better by learning to speak up for yourself and express your needs. Remember that conflict between two human beings is normal and is bound to happen.

Remember as well, that bullying is not the same as conflict. Bullying is meant to cause hurt or harm. Bullying is not something that anyone deserves to have happen to them and they have the right to feel safe.

Conflict Resolution

The difference between bullying and conflict is important to note, because conflict resolution or mediation strategies are sometimes misused to solve bullying problems. These strategies can send the message that both children are partly right and partly wrong, or that “We need to work out the conflict between you two.” These messages are not appropriate in cases of bullying (or in any situation where someone is being victimized). The appropriate message to the child who is being bullied should be “Bullying is wrong and no one deserves to be bullied. We are going to do everything we can to stop what is happening to you.”

Teen Perspective:

In one way or another, conflict is a part of everyday experience. Even if it is something small, which it typically is, there is the constant navigation of the complexities of human relationships. This is normal, and minor conflicts typically don’t make someone feel unsafe or threatened.

The questions to ask yourself when you are unsure about the tone of a certain conversation or encounter to determine if it is bullying include:
Are we equals in this situationDo I feel victimized or targeted by an individual or a groupDo I feel safeDo I feel that the person or group has intentionally hurt or humiliated me
Sometimes, it can be easy to minimize a bullying situation because you don’t really want to deal with the realities of what is happening to you. It is easy to get into a pattern of qualifying bullying as conflict in order to avoid facing the actual problem, when really it is something that you don’t deserve and something that requires outside intervention. It can be helpful to ask these questions to yourself, as it can help you sort out the reality of your particular situation.

Blog Post

Is it a Conflict or is it Bullying? Helping Our Kids Learn the Difference.
Written by staff at PACER's National Bullying Prevention Center

Third graders Nick and Kevin weren’t close friends, but they played foursquare together every recess they could. They battled every point during games that were always loud because the foursquare group was serious about the game. There were often disagreements about fouls and rules but they were generally able to work it out. The adults on recess duty did a nice job of monitoring the players, and they carried laminated sets of rules in case the players needed “help” with disputes. Yet, “It’s not fair!” was often shouted across the playground during recess.

One day Kevin came home and told his mother, Jennifer, that he’d been bullied. Jennifer, alarmed, asked for details.

“Nick pushed me on the playground,” Kevin said. He told Jennifer that he and Nick had argued about a ball that was “on the line,” and that a teacher asked both boys to sit on the bench to cool off during the rest of recess. “It’s not fair! He started it, but we both got punished,” Kevin said. Kevin didn’t think that Nick’s apology was punishment enough.

Had Nick bullied Kevin? Was Nick too aggressive, but not to the point of bullying Kevin? Or were both boys at fault? Jennifer wasn’t sure what to think. She called the school to ask for more details.

When a parent hears a story like this, it isn’t always clear what has happened or what the consequences should be. Jennifer was torn between feeling she might not have heard the whole story, and wanting to fix things for Kevin.

Here are some helpful ways to distinguish between a conflict and bullying behavior:

Conflict looks like:
Disagreement or argument in which both sides express their viewsEqual power between those involvedBehavior usually stops when one child realizes they are hurting another
 
Bullying looks like:
Intent of behavior is to hurt, harm, or humiliatePerson bullying has more “power” such as being more popular or physically strongerNegative behavior continues even when hurt or harm occurs
 
It can be hard for parents when their children are involved in difficult, confusing situations. Nevertheless, it’s important for parents to realize that conflict between children is inevitable – and that sometimes their child won’t like or agree with the outcome. Parents can help their children handle these situations by:
Asking open-ended questions about what happenedListening more than talkingOffering supportHelping their child problem solve
 
It’s easier for a child to confide what is happening to them when they know their parent is in their corner. Conflict situations are great teachable moments. Parents can help their children learn the skills necessary to express their own views and help create their own solutions.

A cautionary note: if behavior crosses the line from conflict to bullying, it’s not up to the child being bullied to fix the situation. While it can be important for the child to help create a plan for change, adults are responsible for making and enforcing rules so that all the children involved are safe.
 
中文翻译:
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1778
原文出处:http://www.pacer.org/bullying/ ... g.asp 查看全部

 浓缩版
Bullying is different from conflict.

Conflict is a disagreement or argument in which both sides express their views.
Bullying is negative behavior directed by someone exerting power and control over another person.
Bullying is done with a goal to hurt, harm, or humiliate. With bullying, there is often a power imbalance between those involved, with power defined as elevated social status, being physically larger, or as part of a group against an individual. Students who bully perceive their target as vulnerable in some way and often find satisfaction in harming them.

In normal conflict, children self-monitor their behavior. They read cues to know if lines are crossed, and then modify their behavior in response. Children guided by empathy usually realize they have hurt someone and will want to stop their negative behavior. On the other hand, children intending to cause harm and whose behavior goes beyond normal conflict will continue their behavior even when they know it's hurting someone.

完整版

Why conflict isn’t all bad and why no one ever deserves to be bullied

If you are in a relationship with another human being, whether it’s a good friend or just someone who sits next to you in school, the chances are pretty good that you will be in conflict with that person at some point or have already had a conflict with that person. Where there are two people in a relationship, there likely will be disagreements and changes.

One friend might want to play video games; the other might want to go outside. One friend wants to go shopping; the other really doesn’t like shopping. Your classmate always wants to be first in line and so do you. Your brothers fight over who has a bigger part of their room, trying to make sure it’s exactly the same down to the inch. Things like that happen every day.

Conflict is a natural part of human relationships as people grow and change. Even though it can cause us stress and can hurt, conflict is not bullying. Conflict happens between two people who are equal in the relationship (think: friends or classmates or co-workers) but have two different points of view about what’s going on. Sometimes this escalates into a disagreement that’s so strong people become really emotional. There might be strong words used and lots of big feelings involved. It may take time to sort things out.

In conflict, when things are equal between people, both sides usually want the issue to be resolved. They don’t want the conflict to keep going on; they want to make things better and they want the relationship to continue in a healthy way. Neither person wants to keep hurting the other, so both people will try to do things to improve the situation. Sometimes, conflict can even be helpful in a relationship that needs to change, providing an opportunity to improve something that’s not going right between the parties.

With bullying, the person (or group of people) who is doing the bullying means to hurt the other person. The hurt or harm is done on purpose to make the bullying target feel like less of a person. There is always something unequal about the relationship between the two people; maybe the person bullying is physically stronger and creates fear because of that, or maybe the person bullying is more popular and has the kind of social power that can turn a whole group against one person.

Whichever type of power a person with bullying behavior has, they will use it over the person who is being bullied to make them feel less than who they are. Of course, the person who is being bullied does not want this treatment and did nothing to deserve being treated this way.

Bullying scenarios might look like this: Someone convinces a group to tease another student based on their looks; someone threatens to beat a person up because of how they talk; somebody posts something untrue and hurtful online about someone else; or someone trips a classmate and makes everyone laugh at the person falling down. The harm is done deliberately and the intent is to cause the other person to suffer in some way.

The bullying behavior is usually repeated, or threatened to be repeated, over and over. Someone who is bullying may decide to leave out a friend by giving them the cold shoulder and excluding them from group activities. Someone may use a false statement or other mean word toward another every time they see them, or go on social media in an attempt to damage their reputation. Even the threat of behavior like this causes unwanted and undeserved pain for the target.

Think about it this way:
  • Conflict, while sometimes uncomfortable, can be an opportunity for equal partners in the situation to learn how to solve problems. This will happen by both people working the problem out through healthy and positive means.
  • Bullying is done by someone perceived to be more powerful than the target and is unwanted, negative, and meant to cause harm to the bullying target through physically or emotionally damaging means that are repeated or threatened to be repeated.

 
The next time you are in a conflict with someone (and there will likely be a next time!), try and remember that inside every conflict is a hidden opportunity to make your relationship better by learning to speak up for yourself and express your needs. Remember that conflict between two human beings is normal and is bound to happen.

Remember as well, that bullying is not the same as conflict. Bullying is meant to cause hurt or harm. Bullying is not something that anyone deserves to have happen to them and they have the right to feel safe.

Conflict Resolution

The difference between bullying and conflict is important to note, because conflict resolution or mediation strategies are sometimes misused to solve bullying problems. These strategies can send the message that both children are partly right and partly wrong, or that “We need to work out the conflict between you two.” These messages are not appropriate in cases of bullying (or in any situation where someone is being victimized). The appropriate message to the child who is being bullied should be “Bullying is wrong and no one deserves to be bullied. We are going to do everything we can to stop what is happening to you.”

Teen Perspective:

In one way or another, conflict is a part of everyday experience. Even if it is something small, which it typically is, there is the constant navigation of the complexities of human relationships. This is normal, and minor conflicts typically don’t make someone feel unsafe or threatened.

The questions to ask yourself when you are unsure about the tone of a certain conversation or encounter to determine if it is bullying include:
  • Are we equals in this situation
  • Do I feel victimized or targeted by an individual or a group
  • Do I feel safe
  • Do I feel that the person or group has intentionally hurt or humiliated me

Sometimes, it can be easy to minimize a bullying situation because you don’t really want to deal with the realities of what is happening to you. It is easy to get into a pattern of qualifying bullying as conflict in order to avoid facing the actual problem, when really it is something that you don’t deserve and something that requires outside intervention. It can be helpful to ask these questions to yourself, as it can help you sort out the reality of your particular situation.

Blog Post

Is it a Conflict or is it Bullying? Helping Our Kids Learn the Difference.
Written by staff at PACER's National Bullying Prevention Center

Third graders Nick and Kevin weren’t close friends, but they played foursquare together every recess they could. They battled every point during games that were always loud because the foursquare group was serious about the game. There were often disagreements about fouls and rules but they were generally able to work it out. The adults on recess duty did a nice job of monitoring the players, and they carried laminated sets of rules in case the players needed “help” with disputes. Yet, “It’s not fair!” was often shouted across the playground during recess.

One day Kevin came home and told his mother, Jennifer, that he’d been bullied. Jennifer, alarmed, asked for details.

“Nick pushed me on the playground,” Kevin said. He told Jennifer that he and Nick had argued about a ball that was “on the line,” and that a teacher asked both boys to sit on the bench to cool off during the rest of recess. “It’s not fair! He started it, but we both got punished,” Kevin said. Kevin didn’t think that Nick’s apology was punishment enough.

Had Nick bullied Kevin? Was Nick too aggressive, but not to the point of bullying Kevin? Or were both boys at fault? Jennifer wasn’t sure what to think. She called the school to ask for more details.

When a parent hears a story like this, it isn’t always clear what has happened or what the consequences should be. Jennifer was torn between feeling she might not have heard the whole story, and wanting to fix things for Kevin.

Here are some helpful ways to distinguish between a conflict and bullying behavior:

Conflict looks like:
  • Disagreement or argument in which both sides express their views
  • Equal power between those involved
  • Behavior usually stops when one child realizes they are hurting another

 
Bullying looks like:
  • Intent of behavior is to hurt, harm, or humiliate
  • Person bullying has more “power” such as being more popular or physically stronger
  • Negative behavior continues even when hurt or harm occurs

 
It can be hard for parents when their children are involved in difficult, confusing situations. Nevertheless, it’s important for parents to realize that conflict between children is inevitable – and that sometimes their child won’t like or agree with the outcome. Parents can help their children handle these situations by:
  • Asking open-ended questions about what happened
  • Listening more than talking
  • Offering support
  • Helping their child problem solve

 
It’s easier for a child to confide what is happening to them when they know their parent is in their corner. Conflict situations are great teachable moments. Parents can help their children learn the skills necessary to express their own views and help create their own solutions.

A cautionary note: if behavior crosses the line from conflict to bullying, it’s not up to the child being bullied to fix the situation. While it can be important for the child to help create a plan for change, adults are responsible for making and enforcing rules so that all the children involved are safe.
 
中文翻译:
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1778
原文出处:http://www.pacer.org/bullying/ ... g.asp

校园欺凌的定义是什么?

豌豆爸爸 发表了文章 • 0 个评论 • 59 次浏览 • 2017-08-08 14:08 • 来自相关话题

 浓缩版
Bullying is an intentional behavior that hurts, harms, or humiliates a student, either physically or emotionally, and can happen while at school, in the community, or online. Those bullying often have more social or physical “power,” while those targeted have difficulty stopping the behavior. The behavior is typically repeated, though it can be a one-time incident.

Students often describe bullying as when “someone makes you feel less about who you are as a person.”

Note: Definitions vary greatly. These are not legal definitions. Find your state’s law and definition at StopBullying.gov
 
完整版

What is bullying? At first glance, it might appear that this behavior is easy to define. A common image of bullying might be of a physically intimidating boy beating up a smaller classmate, or of one child shoving another inside a hallway locker. While that is still considered bullying, it's important to know that bullying behaviors can be much more complex and varied than historical stereotypes.

For example, while some bullying is physical and easy to recognize, bullying can also occur quietly and covertly, through gossip or on a smart phone or the internet, causing emotional damage.

As a starting point, there are elements that are included in most definitions of bullying. Although definitions vary from source to source, most agree that an act is defined as bullying when:

the behavior hurts, humiliates, or harms another person physically or emotionally, and
those targeted by the behavior have difficulty stopping the action directed at them, and struggle to defend themselves, and there is also a real or perceived “imbalance of power,” which is described as when the student with the bullying behavior has more “power,” either physically, socially, or emotionally, such as a higher social status, or is physically larger or emotionally intimidating, and
repetitive behavior; however, bullying can occur in a single incident if that incident is either very severe or arises from a pattern of behavior


Many definitions also include:
The types of bullying: The behavior can be overt and direct, with physical behaviors such as fighting, hitting, or name calling, or it can be covert with emotional-social interactions, such as gossiping or leaving someone out on purpose. Bullying can also happen in person, online, or through smart phones and texts.Intent on the part of the student with bullying behavior: “It is intentional, meaning the act is done willfully, knowingly, and with deliberation to hurt or harm.” But there is some controversy with this statement as some assert that not all bullying behavior is done with intent or that the individual bullying doesn’t always realize that their behavior is hurting another individual.Distinction about amount and duration: Many definitions indicate that bullying is “repeated,” but the reality is that bullying can be circumstantial or chronic. It might be the result of a single situation, such as being the new student at school, or it might be behavior that has been directed at the individual for a long period of time.The implications for all students: It is also important to note that bullying is not just about the implications for those targeted by the behaviors, but that the behavior can impact all students in the school, including those who witness the behavior and those that engage in the behavior.Additional factors: These can include the differentiation between bullying and harassment, enumeration of protected classes, statements around the use of technology, how the behavior impacts educational performance, and the physical locations that would fall under the jurisdiction of school sanctions.

Students often describe bullying as when “someone makes you feel less about who you are as a person.”

Note: This is not a legal definition. Rather it is a way to help students understand what bullying is. For a legal definition, consult your state’s law on bullying. You can find your state’s law at StopBullying.gov.
 
中文翻译:
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1777
原文出处:http://www.pacer.org/bullying/ ... d.asp 查看全部

 浓缩版
Bullying is an intentional behavior that hurts, harms, or humiliates a student, either physically or emotionally, and can happen while at school, in the community, or online. Those bullying often have more social or physical “power,” while those targeted have difficulty stopping the behavior. The behavior is typically repeated, though it can be a one-time incident.

Students often describe bullying as when “someone makes you feel less about who you are as a person.”

Note: Definitions vary greatly. These are not legal definitions. Find your state’s law and definition at StopBullying.gov
 
完整版

What is bullying? At first glance, it might appear that this behavior is easy to define. A common image of bullying might be of a physically intimidating boy beating up a smaller classmate, or of one child shoving another inside a hallway locker. While that is still considered bullying, it's important to know that bullying behaviors can be much more complex and varied than historical stereotypes.

For example, while some bullying is physical and easy to recognize, bullying can also occur quietly and covertly, through gossip or on a smart phone or the internet, causing emotional damage.

As a starting point, there are elements that are included in most definitions of bullying. Although definitions vary from source to source, most agree that an act is defined as bullying when:

the behavior hurts, humiliates, or harms another person physically or emotionally, and
those targeted by the behavior have difficulty stopping the action directed at them, and struggle to defend themselves, and there is also a real or perceived “imbalance of power,” which is described as when the student with the bullying behavior has more “power,” either physically, socially, or emotionally, such as a higher social status, or is physically larger or emotionally intimidating, and
repetitive behavior; however, bullying can occur in a single incident if that incident is either very severe or arises from a pattern of behavior


Many definitions also include:
  • The types of bullying: The behavior can be overt and direct, with physical behaviors such as fighting, hitting, or name calling, or it can be covert with emotional-social interactions, such as gossiping or leaving someone out on purpose. Bullying can also happen in person, online, or through smart phones and texts.
  • Intent on the part of the student with bullying behavior: “It is intentional, meaning the act is done willfully, knowingly, and with deliberation to hurt or harm.” But there is some controversy with this statement as some assert that not all bullying behavior is done with intent or that the individual bullying doesn’t always realize that their behavior is hurting another individual.
  • Distinction about amount and duration: Many definitions indicate that bullying is “repeated,” but the reality is that bullying can be circumstantial or chronic. It might be the result of a single situation, such as being the new student at school, or it might be behavior that has been directed at the individual for a long period of time.
  • The implications for all students: It is also important to note that bullying is not just about the implications for those targeted by the behaviors, but that the behavior can impact all students in the school, including those who witness the behavior and those that engage in the behavior.
  • Additional factors: These can include the differentiation between bullying and harassment, enumeration of protected classes, statements around the use of technology, how the behavior impacts educational performance, and the physical locations that would fall under the jurisdiction of school sanctions.


Students often describe bullying as when “someone makes you feel less about who you are as a person.”

Note: This is not a legal definition. Rather it is a way to help students understand what bullying is. For a legal definition, consult your state’s law on bullying. You can find your state’s law at StopBullying.gov.
 
中文翻译:
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1777
原文出处:http://www.pacer.org/bullying/ ... d.asp

美国梅奥诊所:服用MAOI治疗抑郁需要低酪胺饮食吗?

豌豆爸爸 发表了文章 • 0 个评论 • 90 次浏览 • 2017-07-01 19:24 • 来自相关话题

Tyramine (TIE-ruh-meen) is an amino acid that helps regulate blood pressure. It occurs naturally in the body and it's found in certain foods. Medications called monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) block an enzyme known as monoamine oxidase, which breaks down excess tyramine in the body. Blocking this enzyme helps relieve depression.

If you take an MAOI and you eat high-tyramine foods, tyramine can quickly reach dangerous levels. This can cause a serious spike in blood pressure and require emergency treatment.

Avoid consuming foods that are high in tyramine if you take an MAOI. You may need to continue following a low-tyramine diet for a few weeks after you stop the medication.

Tyramine is naturally found in small amounts in protein-containing foods. As these foods age, the tyramine levels increase. Tyramine amounts can vary among foods due to different processing, storage and preparation methods. You can't reduce the amount of tyramine in a food by cooking it.

Examples of foods high in tyramine include:
Strong or aged cheeses, such as aged cheddar, Swiss and parmesan; blue cheeses such as Stilton and Gorgonzola; and Camembert. Cheeses made from pasteurized milk — such as American cheese, cottage cheese, ricotta, farmer cheese and cream cheese — are less likely to contain high levels of tyramine.Cured meats, which are meats treated with salt and nitrate or nitrite, such as dry-type summer sausages, pepperoni and salami.Smoked or processed meats, such as hot dogs, bologna, bacon, corned beef or smoked fish.Pickled or fermented foods, such as sauerkraut, kimchee, caviar, tofu or pickles.Sauces, such as soy sauce, shrimp sauce, fish sauce, miso and teriyaki sauce.Soybeans and soybean products.Snow peas, broad beans (fava beans) and their pods.Dried or overripe fruits, such as raisins or prunes, or overripe bananas or avocados.Meat tenderizers or meat prepared with tenderizers.Yeast-extract spreads, such as Marmite, brewer's yeast or sour dough bread.Alcoholic beverages, such as beer — especially tap or homebrewed beer — red wine, sherry and liqueurs.Combination foods that contain any of the above ingredients.Improperly stored foods or spoiled foods. While you're taking an MAOI, your doctor may recommend eating only fresh foods — not leftovers or foods past their freshness dates.

MAOIs, although effective, generally have been replaced by newer antidepressants that are safer and cause fewer side effects. Still, an MAOI is a good option for some people. In certain cases, an MAOI relieves depression when other treatments have failed.

Examples of MAOIs that are used for depression include:
Isocarboxazid (Marplan)Phenelzine (Nardil)Selegiline (Emsam)Tranylcypromine (Parnate)

Selegiline in patch form (Emsam) delivers the medication through your skin. If you use the lowest dose of the patch, you may not need to be as strict with the foods you eat, but check with your doctor or pharmacist.

It's wise to learn the emergency signs of a rapid and severe rise in blood pressure (hypertensive crisis), which may include:
Severe headacheNausea and vomitingSweating and severe anxietyNosebleedsFast heartbeatChest painChanges in visionShortness of breathConfusion

Rarely, a severe increase in blood pressure can lead to bleeding in the brain (hemorrhagic stroke).

If you take an MAOI, be prepared. Ask your doctor:
For a list of foods to avoid — make sure you understand exactly what's safe for you and what isn'tWhat to do if you accidently eat or drink something with too much tyramine, so you have a plan in place
 
中文翻译:
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1751
原文出处:http://www.mayoclinic.org/dise ... 58035 查看全部

Tyramine (TIE-ruh-meen) is an amino acid that helps regulate blood pressure. It occurs naturally in the body and it's found in certain foods. Medications called monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) block an enzyme known as monoamine oxidase, which breaks down excess tyramine in the body. Blocking this enzyme helps relieve depression.

If you take an MAOI and you eat high-tyramine foods, tyramine can quickly reach dangerous levels. This can cause a serious spike in blood pressure and require emergency treatment.

Avoid consuming foods that are high in tyramine if you take an MAOI. You may need to continue following a low-tyramine diet for a few weeks after you stop the medication.

Tyramine is naturally found in small amounts in protein-containing foods. As these foods age, the tyramine levels increase. Tyramine amounts can vary among foods due to different processing, storage and preparation methods. You can't reduce the amount of tyramine in a food by cooking it.

Examples of foods high in tyramine include:
  • Strong or aged cheeses, such as aged cheddar, Swiss and parmesan; blue cheeses such as Stilton and Gorgonzola; and Camembert. Cheeses made from pasteurized milk — such as American cheese, cottage cheese, ricotta, farmer cheese and cream cheese — are less likely to contain high levels of tyramine.
  • Cured meats, which are meats treated with salt and nitrate or nitrite, such as dry-type summer sausages, pepperoni and salami.
  • Smoked or processed meats, such as hot dogs, bologna, bacon, corned beef or smoked fish.
  • Pickled or fermented foods, such as sauerkraut, kimchee, caviar, tofu or pickles.
  • Sauces, such as soy sauce, shrimp sauce, fish sauce, miso and teriyaki sauce.
  • Soybeans and soybean products.
  • Snow peas, broad beans (fava beans) and their pods.
  • Dried or overripe fruits, such as raisins or prunes, or overripe bananas or avocados.
  • Meat tenderizers or meat prepared with tenderizers.
  • Yeast-extract spreads, such as Marmite, brewer's yeast or sour dough bread.
  • Alcoholic beverages, such as beer — especially tap or homebrewed beer — red wine, sherry and liqueurs.
  • Combination foods that contain any of the above ingredients.
  • Improperly stored foods or spoiled foods. While you're taking an MAOI, your doctor may recommend eating only fresh foods — not leftovers or foods past their freshness dates.


MAOIs, although effective, generally have been replaced by newer antidepressants that are safer and cause fewer side effects. Still, an MAOI is a good option for some people. In certain cases, an MAOI relieves depression when other treatments have failed.

Examples of MAOIs that are used for depression include:
  • Isocarboxazid (Marplan)
  • Phenelzine (Nardil)
  • Selegiline (Emsam)
  • Tranylcypromine (Parnate)


Selegiline in patch form (Emsam) delivers the medication through your skin. If you use the lowest dose of the patch, you may not need to be as strict with the foods you eat, but check with your doctor or pharmacist.

It's wise to learn the emergency signs of a rapid and severe rise in blood pressure (hypertensive crisis), which may include:
  • Severe headache
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Sweating and severe anxiety
  • Nosebleeds
  • Fast heartbeat
  • Chest pain
  • Changes in vision
  • Shortness of breath
  • Confusion


Rarely, a severe increase in blood pressure can lead to bleeding in the brain (hemorrhagic stroke).

If you take an MAOI, be prepared. Ask your doctor:
  • For a list of foods to avoid — make sure you understand exactly what's safe for you and what isn't
  • What to do if you accidently eat or drink something with too much tyramine, so you have a plan in place

 
中文翻译:
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1751
原文出处:http://www.mayoclinic.org/dise ... 58035
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