担心:流感疫苗含有有害化学成分,可使人生病

“流感疫苗的成分已经被疾控中心和食药监进行详尽的研究和审查,数据显示这些疫苗是安全且有效的,” Chiu.说到。 “就像任何疫苗一样,接种部位有可能出现一些肌肉酸痛或红肿,亦或低热和疼痛,”Chiu.说到。“但是,流感疫苗并不会引起流感,也不会导致自闭症。”...
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“流感疫苗的成分已经被疾控中心和食药监进行详尽的研究和审查,数据显示这些疫苗是安全且有效的,”

Chiu.说到。 

“就像任何疫苗一样,接种部位有可能出现一些肌肉酸痛或红肿,亦或低热和疼痛,”Chiu.说到。“但是,流感疫苗并不会引起流感,也不会导致自闭症。”

中文翻译:豌豆爸爸
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1912
原文出处:https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2020/09/418406/why-covid-19-means-you-need-flu-shot-year

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错误:我年轻又健康,因此流感对我而言并不危险

“任意年龄段的人都可能死于流感,” Rutherford 说到。“流感导致了大量的发病和死亡。” “即使对于年轻和健康的人群,流感也可导致发烧或过于疲倦,以使其一两周无法工作,” Chiu 说到。“这是你并不像得得一种疾病。” Chiu 说到 ,另外一个年...
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“任意年龄段的人都可能死于流感,”

Rutherford 说到。“流感导致了大量的发病和死亡。” 

“即使对于年轻和健康的人群,流感也可导致发烧或过于疲倦,以使其一两周无法工作,”

Chiu 说到。“这是你并不像得得一种疾病。” 

Chiu 说到 ,另外一个年轻人要接种流感疫苗的原因是保护易感人群。甚至在你出现明显症状之前,你就可以将病毒传给其他人。“如果你得了流感,你可能会将你爱的人-小孩和老人,如你的孩子和父母及祖父母-陷于危险之中。”

中文翻译:豌豆爸爸
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1911
原文出处:https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2020/09/418406/why-covid-19-means-you-need-flu-shot-year

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担心:流感疫苗并不是非常有校

Chiu说到,每年的流感疫苗的效果会有波动,这取决于我们猜中的菌株有多接近(流行的流感菌株),但是直到明年春季我们才能得知今年流感疫苗的效果如何。目前即使收集南半球的数据也为时过早,因为那边现在仍然处于流感流行季。“流感疫苗的价值在于,即使一年只有50%的效果...
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Chiu说到,每年的流感疫苗的效果会有波动,这取决于我们猜中的菌株有多接近(流行的流感菌株),但是直到明年春季我们才能得知今年流感疫苗的效果如何。目前即使收集南半球的数据也为时过早,因为那边现在仍然处于流感流行季。

“流感疫苗的价值在于,即使一年只有50%的效果,也已证明接种疫苗可降低疾病的严重程度和因流感而入院的风险,”

Chiu说到 。 

除了个体的收益,接种疫苗也有益于更为广泛的公共卫生努力。“接种疫苗并不是为你自己,也有助于预防传播病毒给他人,我认为认识到这一点是非常重要的,”他说到。“因此,在社区水平上,更多人接种疫苗,得病的人才会更少。”

中文翻译:豌豆爸爸
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1910
原文出处:https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2020/09/418406/why-covid-19-means-you-need-flu-shot-year

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错误:我听说今年的流感季会比较温和

的确,澳大利亚的流感季高峰是6月到8月,目前看起来流感季比往年要温和的多,但这种情况可能是由于社交距离、旅行限制和一贯的高接种率导致的。这些因素并不适用于气候更冷、措施更弱的美国。家中没有优异条件的一线人员的风险会更高,Chiu说到。“我担心并不是我们即将迎来...
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的确,澳大利亚的流感季高峰是6月到8月,目前看起来流感季比往年要温和的多,但这种情况可能是由于社交距离、旅行限制和一贯的高接种率导致的。

这些因素并不适用于气候更冷、措施更弱的美国。家中没有优异条件的一线人员的风险会更高,Chiu说到。

“我担心并不是我们即将迎来一个来势汹汹的流感季”,

Chiu说到。 “我担心的是即使是温和的流感季也足以将我们的医疗系统负荷推向极限。” 

中文翻译:豌豆爸爸
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1909
原文出处:https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2020/09/418406/why-covid-19-means-you-need-flu-shot-year

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错误:我已经保持社交距离且戴口罩了,因此我不会得流感

的确,如果你戴口罩和保持社交距离的话,得流感的风险会大大降低,Chiu说到。但是我们知道人们会很烦这些措施,因此并不能总是严格遵守。随着寒冷天气来临,更多得活动会发生在室内,室内更容易传播流感病毒。同时,更多的州会开放和放宽限制,更多的人会复工和复学。 “虽然...
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的确,如果你戴口罩和保持社交距离的话,得流感的风险会大大降低,Chiu说到。但是我们知道人们会很烦这些措施,因此并不能总是严格遵守。

随着寒冷天气来临,更多得活动会发生在室内,室内更容易传播流感病毒。同时,更多的州会开放和放宽限制,更多的人会复工和复学。 “虽然目前的风险较低,人们也依然守规矩,问题是这种情况正在改变,”Chiu说到。 “只要有一次你忘记戴,或故意不戴口罩,这种行为就可导致你自己和其他人处于危险之中。” 

中文翻译:豌豆爸爸
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1908
原文出处:https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2020/09/418406/why-covid-19-means-you-need-flu-shot-year

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误解:新冠疫情期间去医生诊室似乎很危险

“医生诊室(感染新冠)的风险很可能远远低于你外出去超市或其他聚集地的风险,”Chiu说到。“这是因为医护人员都非常谨慎地采取适合的预防措施。”大多数记载的 COVID-19暴发都发生在人们没有遵守像戴口罩和保持社交距离这样标准预防措施的人口聚集地。 “这恰恰...
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“医生诊室(感染新冠)的风险很可能远远低于你外出去超市或其他聚集地的风险,”Chiu说到。“这是因为医护人员都非常谨慎地采取适合的预防措施。”大多数记载的

COVID-19暴发都发生在人们没有遵守像戴口罩和保持社交距离这样标准预防措施的人口聚集地。 “这恰恰是一个受控场所,如医生诊室,的反面,”Chiu说到。


专家说当地的药店也是接种流感疫苗的安全场所。

就像新冠疫情期间的任何活动一样,这是一个风险与收益的权衡。“接种疫苗带来的收益远高于去医生诊室时戴着口罩和保持社交距离而感染新冠的风险,”Chiu说到。

中文翻译:豌豆爸爸
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1907
原文出处:https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2020/09/418406/why-covid-19-means-you-need-flu-shot-year

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为什么新冠疫情意味着你今年需要接种流感疫苗

随着美国进入流感季,健康专家警告说,新冠疫情高峰时另一种传染性疾病会使得医疗卫生系统不堪重负、榨干检测能力、增加同时感染两种疾病的风险。据加州大学旧金山分校的传染病学专家Charles Chiu博士的说法,在一个糟糕的流感季,高峰从12月持续至来年2月,有40...
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随着美国进入流感季,健康专家警告说,新冠疫情高峰时另一种传染性疾病会使得医疗卫生系统不堪重负、榨干检测能力、增加同时感染两种疾病的风险。

据加州大学旧金山分校的传染病学专家Charles Chiu博士的说法,在一个糟糕的流感季,高峰从12月持续至来年2月,有4000至5000万美国人可能感染流感,其中有80万人需要入院治疗。

“因此担心的是随着流感季的开始,你就处于感染流感和新冠的顶峰,”他说到。“即使是在一个温和的流感季,与新冠疫情的重叠也会迅速压垮我们的医疗系统。”

然而,与新冠肺炎不同,流感是我们熟悉的一种疾病,每年都有安全有效的疫苗供应。

虽然流感的死亡率不足千分之一,不足新冠肺炎的十分之一(目前新冠肺炎的死亡率估计为0.5%至1%),它每年依旧使3至6万美国人丧生。


“Here we have a disease, influenza, a scourge of humankind going back centuries,” said epidemiologist George Rutherford, MD. “We have a vaccine that’s pretty effective. There’s no reason for us to be filling our ICUs with people with influenza who didn’t get vaccinated.”

For both the flu and COVID-19, the elderly and those with underlying conditions are more susceptible, but the flu also hits children particularly hard and spreads readily in schools. The more people in all age groups who get a flu vaccine, the more protected these vulnerable populations will be, experts said.

Risk of Overwhelming Hospitals
The effectiveness of the flu vaccine can range from about 20 percent to 60 percent depending on how accurately scientists have predicted the circulating flu strains that season. Effectiveness can also vary from person to person depending on their age and health. Even if the vaccine doesn’t prevent you from getting the flu, it may make the illness less serious should you get infected, said Chiu.

And this year, any reduction in flu cases and their severity could make a difference for hospital capacity, said Rutherford.

The worst-case scenario is that a surge in COVID-19 cases this winter fills ICUs so that even a mild flu season would overwhelm hospitals – not to mention leaving less capacity for patients needing intensive care from traffic accident injuries or heart attacks.

“We already know that with COVID-19 peaks, we were maxing out on our ICU capacity in places like New York City in late March of this year. So it wouldn’t take too much to put us over the edge again,” said Chiu.

Testing Could Be Strained


Another concern is testing capacity and shortages in the substances, called reagents, needed to run the tests.

“It turns out that the definitive tests for flu use essentially the same approach that we use for COVID-19 tests – it’s PCR,” said Chiu.

The same reagents are needed to extract DNA or RNA from samples in both tests. With flu and COVID-19 sharing similar symptoms, the demand for both tests may increase and lead to reagent shortages, said Chiu.

His lab is currently developing a single rapid test that would look for flu and COVID-19 at the same time, but such multiplex testing is not yet widely available for high-throughput screening.

You Don’t Want to Have Both At the Same Time
It’s also possible to be infected with the flu and COVID-19 at the same time, although it’s too soon to tell how common such co-infections will be.

“It’s not yet been established that dual or consecutive infection causes more severe disease, but I would speculate that that’s likely the case because the same site of infection is involved,” said Chiu.

What is clear is that the flu and COVID-19 both target the lung, said Rutherford.

“And to the extent that the lungs are damaged by one disease and the other one comes along and damages it more, you can get into trouble faster,” he said.

He added that it’s also known that influenza can make you more susceptible to infection by other pathogens. “In fact, a lot of the deaths of the 1918 flu pandemic were probably from staphylococcal pneumonia as a superinfection on top of influenza pneumonia,” he said.

In the 2018-19 flu season, about 49 percent of Americans received a flu vaccine, averting an estimated 4.4 million illnesses, 58,000 hospitalizations, and 3,500 deaths, according to the CDC. Experts hope more Americans will choose to get a flu shot this year – for themselves and for others.

Vaccination Rates Between Children and Adults in the U.S.

And while the Southern hemisphere, which experiences the flu earlier than the Northern hemisphere, has been experiencing a relatively mild season, that is at least partially thanks to COVID-19 mitigation measures such as social distancing and mask wearing. The trends in places like Australia suggest a milder season for the United States as well, but there are no guarantees, experts said. Colder winters in the north mean that people will be forced indoors where the risk of respiratory infections from close contacts is higher, said Chiu.

“If you’re walking around with the flu, you’re going to be a big transmitter,” said Rutherford. “So a vaccine is a chance for you not to transmit. In a season of COVID, you don’t want to have both at the same time, believe me.”

中文翻译:豌豆爸爸
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1906
原文出处:https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2020/09/418406/why-covid-19-means-you-need-flu-shot-year

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拯救生命或保证就业的取舍言论是虚假两难

Controlling the pandemic is a prerequisite to saving livelihoods  作者:KRISTALINA GEORGIEVA AND DR TEDROS ADHANOM GHEBREYE...
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Controlling the pandemic is a prerequisite to saving livelihoods  

作者:KRISTALINA GEORGIEVA AND DR TEDROS ADHANOM GHEBREYESUS

时间:3 APRIL 2020  10:03AM

As the world responds to Covid-19, country after country is faced with the need to contain the spread of the virus at the cost of bringing its society and economy to a standstill.

At face value there is a trade-off to make: either save lives or save livelihoods. This is a false dilemma – getting the virus under control is, if anything, a prerequisite to saving livelihoods.

This is what brings the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) so closely together – the WHO is there to protect the health of people and well-placed to advise on health priorities; the IMF exists to protect the health of the world economy – it advises on economic priorities, and also helps provide financing.

Our joint appeal to policymakers, especially in emerging market and developing economies, is to recognise that protecting public health and putting people back to work go hand-in-hand.

The WHO is on the front line of this crisis by the virtue of its mandate, but so is the IMF. In the short time since Covid-19 started spreading across the world, the demand for IMF financing has skyrocketed.

Never in the 75 years history of the institution have so many countries – 85 so far – found themselves in need of IMF emergency financing. And this financing is being made available in record short time, with the first projects already being approved and money disbursed to provide much needed assistance to shield countries against dramatic increase in financial needs at a time of sudden drop in economic activities and in revenues.

As financing to support severely constrained public budgets reaches the countries in need, our joint plea is to place health expenditures at the top of the priority list.

Paying salaries to doctors and nurses, supporting hospitals and emergency rooms, establishing make-shift field clinics, buying protective gear and essential medical equipment, carrying out public awareness campaigns about simple measures like hand washing – these are critical investments to protect people against the pandemic.

In far too many places health systems are unprepared for an onslaught of COVID-19 patients and it is paramount to give them a boost.

And this can and must go together with support for economy-wide priorities required to reduce unemployment, minimise bankruptcies and, over time, ensure recovery.

They come in addition to – not as a substitute for – health spending, and aim to provide targeted support to most-affected households and firms, including cash transfers, wage subsidies, and short-time work, strengthening unemployment benefits and social safety nets, and limiting the rise in borrowing costs.

We recognise how difficult it is to strike the right balance. Economic activity is plummeting as infections and measures to combat the pandemic affect workers, firms, and supply chains, job losses and uncertainty drag down spending, financial conditions sharply tighten, and the oil price collapse hits commodity exporters – all with cross-border spillovers.

In countries with large informal economies families depend on daily wages to survive. Highly congested urban slums make social distancing impossible.

We are convinced, however, that emergency financing can only help if countries strike this balance. The WHO can help in vital areas for coordination such as ensuring the production and delivery of medical supplies to those in need, in an effective, efficient, and equitable manner – by facilitating advance purchase agreements, for example.

The WHO is also working with suppliers of personal protective equipment for health workers to ensure that supply chains are functioning. And this is an area where collaboration with other international organisations can be so effective – for example, the World Bank’s capacity to aggregate demand to purchase medical supplies in bulk. 

The IMF for its part aims to help by doubling its emergency response capacity from $50 billion up to $100 billion – making it possible for countries to get twice as much money from the Fund as had been made available during emergencies. Its total lending capacity of $1 trillion is now secured thanks to decisive actions of its membership.

The Fund is also increasing its capacity to ease debt service obligations of its poorest members through the Catastrophe Containment Relief Trust for which generous donors are providing grant resources. And together with the World Bank it is advocating for a standstill of debt service from the poorest countries to official bilateral creditors for as long as the world economy is paralysed by the pandemic. 

The course of the global health crisis and the fate of the global economy are inseparably intertwined. Fighting the pandemic is a necessity for the economy to rebound. That is why the WHO and IMF are cooperating closely with one another, and with other international organisations, to help address countries’ priority needs.

As we all work together, with little time and finite resources, it is essential that we focus on the right priorities to save lives and livelihoods. Our joint appeal is that in one of humanity's darkest hours, leaders must step up right now for people living in emerging markets.

Kristalina Georgieva is Managing Director of the IMF, and Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus is Director-General of the WHO.

中文翻译:
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1905
原文出处: https://www.telegraph.co.uk/global-health/science-and-disease/protecting-healthandlivelihoods-go-hand-in-hand-cannot-save/


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世界卫生组织:我感染新冠肺炎,病重没法母乳喂养宝宝,该怎么办?

如果你因为新冠肺炎或其他并发症身体不适无法母乳喂养你的宝宝,你应该被支持通过可能、可及和可接受的方式给宝宝安全地提供母乳,包括:正确挤乳(Expressing milk);重新哺乳(relactation);捐赠的母乳(Donor human milk)。中文...
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如果你因为新冠肺炎或其他并发症身体不适无法母乳喂养你的宝宝,你应该被支持通过可能、可及和可接受的方式给宝宝安全地提供母乳,包括:

正确挤乳(Expressing milk);
重新哺乳(relactation);
捐赠的母乳(Donor human milk)。

中文翻译:豌豆爸爸
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1904
原文出处:https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/q-a-on-covid-19-pregnancy-childbirth-and-breastfeeding   

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世界卫生组织:如果身患新冠肺炎,我可以接触和抱我的新生宝宝吗?

答案是肯定的。密切接触,并且早期的纯母乳喂养有助于宝宝生长。你应该被支持:安全地母乳喂养,并注意好的呼吸道卫生;与宝宝身体接触,且共处一室。在接触宝宝前后应洗手,并且保持所有表面清洁。中文翻译:豌豆爸爸本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know...
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答案是肯定的。密切接触,并且早期的纯母乳喂养有助于宝宝生长。你应该被支持:

  • 安全地母乳喂养,并注意好的呼吸道卫生;
  • 与宝宝身体接触,且
  • 共处一室。

在接触宝宝前后应洗手,并且保持所有表面清洁。

中文翻译:豌豆爸爸
本文地址:http://www.wjbb.com/know/1903
原文出处:https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/q-a-on-covid-19-pregnancy-childbirth-and-breastfeeding 

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