作者：Mayo Clinic Staff
Worries and anxiety about COVID-19 and its impact can be overwhelming. Social distancing makes it even more challenging. Learn ways to cope during this pandemic.
The COVID-19 pandemic has likely brought many changes to how you live your life, and with it uncertainty, altered daily routines, financial pressures and social isolation. You may worry about getting sick, how long the pandemic will last, whether you'll lose your job, and what the future will bring. Information overload, rumors and misinformation can make your life feel out of control and make it unclear what to do.
During the COVID-19 pandemic, you may experience stress, anxiety, fear, sadness and loneliness. And mental health disorders, including anxiety and depression, can worsen.
Surveys show a major increase in the number of U.S. adults who report symptoms of stress, anxiety and depression during the pandemic, compared with surveys before the pandemic. Some people have increased their use of alcohol or drugs, thinking that can help them cope with their fears about the pandemic. In reality, using these substances can worsen anxiety and depression.
People with substance use disorders, notably those addicted to tobacco or opioids, are likely to have worse outcomes if they get COVID-19. That's because these addictions can harm lung function and weaken the immune system, causing chronic conditions such as heart disease and lung disease, which increase the risk of serious complications from COVID-19.
For all of these reasons, it's important to learn self-care strategies and get the care you need to help you cope.
Self-care strategies are good for your mental and physical health and can help you take charge of your life. Take care of your body and your mind and connect with others to benefit your mental health.
Take care of your body
Be mindful about your physical health:
Get enough sleep. Go to bed and get up at the same times each day. Stick close to your typical schedule, even if you're staying at home.
Participate in regular physical activity. Regular physical activity and exercise can help reduce anxiety and improve mood. Find an activity that includes movement, such as dance or exercise apps. Get outside in an area that makes it easy to maintain distance from people, such as a nature trail or your own backyard.
Eat healthy. Choose a well-balanced diet. Avoid loading up on junk food and refined sugar. Limit caffeine as it can aggravate stress and anxiety.
Avoid tobacco, alcohol and drugs. If you smoke tobacco or if you vape, you're already at higher risk of lung disease. Because COVID-19 affects the lungs, your risk increases even more. Using alcohol to try to cope can make matters worse and reduce your coping skills. Avoid taking drugs to cope, unless your doctor prescribed medications for you.
Limit screen time. Turn off electronic devices for some time each day, including 30 minutes before bedtime. Make a conscious effort to spend less time in front of a screen — television, tablet, computer and phone.
Relax and recharge. Set aside time for yourself. Even a few minutes of quiet time can be refreshing and help to quiet your mind and reduce anxiety. Many people benefit from practices such as deep breathing, tai chi, yoga or meditation. Soak in a bubble bath, listen to music, or read or listen to a book — whatever helps you relax. Select a technique that works for you and practice it regularly.
Take care of your mind
Reduce stress triggers:
Keep your regular routine. Maintaining a regular schedule is important to your mental health. In addition to sticking to a regular bedtime routine, keep consistent times for meals, bathing and getting dressed, work or study schedules, and exercise. Also set aside time for activities you enjoy. This predictability can make you feel more in control.
Limit exposure to news media. Constant news about COVID-19 from all types of media can heighten fears about the disease. Limit social media that may expose you to rumors and false information. Also limit reading, hearing or watching other news, but keep up to date on national and local recommendations. Look for reliable sources, such as the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO).
Stay busy. A distraction can get you away from the cycle of negative thoughts that feed anxiety and depression. Enjoy hobbies that you can do at home, identify a new project or clean out that closet you promised you'd get to. Doing something positive to manage anxiety is a healthy coping strategy.
Focus on positive thoughts. Choose to focus on the positive things in your life, instead of dwelling on how bad you feel. Consider starting each day by listing things you are thankful for. Maintain a sense of hope, work to accept changes as they occur and try to keep problems in perspective.
Use your moral compass or spiritual life for support. If you draw strength from a belief system, it can bring you comfort during difficult times.
Set priorities. Don't become overwhelmed by creating a life-changing list of things to achieve while you're home. Set reasonable goals each day and outline steps you can take to reach those goals. Give yourself credit for every step in the right direction, no matter how small. And recognize that some days will be better than others.
Connect with others
Build support and strengthen relationships:
Make connections. If you need to stay at home and distance yourself from others, avoid social isolation. Find time each day to make virtual connections by email, texts, phone, or FaceTime or similar apps. If you're working remotely from home, ask your co-workers how they're doing and share coping tips. Enjoy virtual socializing and talking to those in your home.
Do something for others. Find purpose in helping the people around you. For example, email, text or call to check on your friends, family members and neighbors — especially those who are elderly. If you know someone who can't get out, ask if there's something needed, such as groceries or a prescription picked up, for instance. But be sure to follow CDC, WHO and your government recommendations on social distancing and group meetings.
Support a family member or friend. If a family member or friend needs to be isolated for safety reasons or gets sick and needs to be quarantined at home or in the hospital, come up with ways to stay in contact. This could be through electronic devices or the telephone or by sending a note to brighten the day, for example.
Recognizing what's typical and what's not
Stress is a normal psychological and physical reaction to the demands of life. Everyone reacts differently to difficult situations, and it's normal to feel stress and worry during a crisis. But multiple challenges daily, such as the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, can push you beyond your ability to cope.
Many people may have mental health concerns, such as symptoms of anxiety and depression during this time. And feelings may change over time.
Despite your best efforts, you may find yourself feeling helpless, sad, angry, irritable, hopeless, anxious or afraid. You may have trouble concentrating on typical tasks, changes in appetite, body aches and pains, or difficulty sleeping or you may struggle to face routine chores.
When these signs and symptoms last for several days in a row, make you miserable and cause problems in your daily life so that you find it hard to carry out normal responsibilities, it's time to ask for help.
Get help when you need it
Hoping mental health problems such as anxiety or depression will go away on their own can lead to worsening symptoms. If you have concerns or if you experience worsening of mental health symptoms, ask for help when you need it, and be upfront about how you're doing. To get help you may want to:
Call or use social media to contact a close friend or loved one — even though it may be hard to talk about your feelings.
Contact a minister, spiritual leader or someone in your faith community.
Contact your employee assistance program, if your employer has one, and get counseling or ask for a referral to a mental health professional.
Call your primary care provider or mental health professional to ask about appointment options to talk about your anxiety or depression and get advice and guidance. Some may provide the option of phone, video or online appointments.
Contact organizations such as the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) or the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) for help and guidance.
If you're feeling suicidal or thinking of hurting yourself, seek help. Contact your primary care provider or a mental health professional. Or call a suicide hotline. In the U.S., call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 1-800-273-TALK (1-800-273-8255) or use its webchat at suicidepreventionlifeline.org/chat.
Continue your self-care strategies
You can expect your current strong feelings to fade when the pandemic is over, but stress won't disappear from your life when the health crisis of COVID-19 ends. Continue these self-care practices to take care of your mental health and increase your ability to cope with life's ongoing challenges.
作者：Mayo Clinic Staff
During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, you may experience anxiety, fear, frustration, sadness and loneliness — to the point that those feelings become constant and overwhelming. Existing mental health conditions, including severe anxiety and major depression, may worsen. If you're feeling hopeless and having thoughts about suicide, or you're concerned about someone else, learn how to find help and restore hope.
Major stressors related to the COVID-19 pandemic
Most often, suicidal thoughts are the result of feeling like you can't cope or recover when you're faced with what seems to be an overwhelming life situation. There's little data yet on the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on the suicide rate. But clearly the pandemic has added intense emotional and mental stress to the lives of people around the world. Fear, anxiety and depression can stem from a wide range of concerns and experiences, from personal and family issues to work-related stress.
Personal and family concerns
Situations vary, but personal and family issues may include:
Fear that you or your loved ones will get COVID-19
No chance to be with and comfort your loved one who is seriously ill or dying in the hospital
Grief over the loss of a loved one to COVID-19 or another illness
Social isolation, especially if you live alone or in a facility where visitors are temporarily not allowed
Being in close quarters with family under stay-at-home orders, which could increase the risk of spouse, partner or child abuse
Starting or worsening of alcohol or drug misuse
Having other mental health disorders, such as major depression, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder or an anxiety disorder
Depending on the type of job you have, examples of work-related issues include:
Anxiety due to working in a high-risk environment, such as in a hospital or nursing home, or being a first responder
Feeling overwhelmed working in crowded health care facilities that treat people with COVID-19, especially in places that may have a shortage of personnel and personal protective equipment
Feeling burned out and frustrated as a health care worker because you feel that you couldn't do enough for people with COVID-19 who died
Fear and anxiety about the increased risk of COVID-19 because you're an essential worker, such as a worker in the food or transportation industry, whose job requires serving the public in person
Worry about or actual loss of a job or business, causing financial hardship
Worry about how you'll provide basic needs for yourself and your family if you're out of work for an unpredictable amount of time or if you lose your job
Warning signs of suicide
Whether you're having thoughts of suicide or know someone who feels suicidal, learn suicide warning signs and how to reach out for immediate help and professional treatment. You may save a life — your own or someone else's.
Suicide warning signs or suicidal thoughts include:
Talking about suicide: for example, making statements such as "I'm going to kill myself" or "I wish I were dead"
Getting the means to take your own life, such as buying a gun or stockpiling pills
Withdrawing contact with others more than usual, even though staying at home may be recommended during the COVID-19 pandemic: for example, not responding to any type of communication from others, such as calls, texts or other messages
Having mood swings, such as being emotionally high one day and deeply discouraged the next
Being preoccupied with death, dying or violence
Feeling trapped or hopeless about a situation
Excessively using alcohol or drugs
Changing your normal routine, including eating or sleeping patterns
Doing risky or self-destructive things, such as using drugs or driving recklessly
Giving away belongings or getting affairs in order when there's no other need to do so
Saying goodbye to people as if they won't be seen again
Developing personality changes or being severely anxious or agitated
The unique circumstances of the COVID-19 pandemic, including little social interaction, may make it more challenging to identify those at risk of suicide. Warning signs aren't always obvious, and they may vary from person to person. Some people make their intentions clear, while others keep suicidal thoughts and feelings secret.
Reach out for help
During the COVID-19 pandemic, you can still reach out to others in a safe way and ask for help. Whether it's by phone, text or email or a trusted social media platform, don't be afraid to let others know that you're feeling overwhelmed and need support. At least get the conversation started.
If you think you may hurt yourself or attempt suicide, get help right away by taking one of these actions:
Contact your doctor or a mental health professional to help you cope with suicidal thoughts.
Call a mental health crisis number or a suicide hotline. In the U.S., call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 1-800-273-8255 any time of day — press "1" to reach the Veterans Crisis Line or use Lifeline Chat.
Call 911 or your local emergency number.
Reach out to a close friend or loved one.
Contact a minister, spiritual leader or someone else in your faith community.
Even after the immediate crisis passes, seek help to get appropriate treatment for suicidal thoughts and feelings and learn effective coping strategies. Keep a list of resources and numbers readily available. On your list, include contact numbers for your doctors, mental health professionals and crisis centers, as well as trusted friends or loved ones.
When someone else is suicidal
If someone says he or she is thinking of suicide or behaves in a way that makes you think the person may be suicidal, don't play it down or ignore the situation. If you're concerned about a friend or loved one, consider these actions, depending on the situation:
Offer the person the opportunity to talk about his or her feelings, but keep in mind that it's not your job to substitute for a mental health professional.
Encourage the person to call a mental health crisis center or suicide hotline.
Encourage the person to seek professional treatment.
Urge him or her to find help from a trusted person, support group or faith community.
Offer to help the person find the necessary assistance and support, including staying with the individual until a safe environment can be arranged.
If someone is posting suicidal messages on social media, many sites such as Facebook or Instagram offer options on how to respond — search the site for "suicide" or "suicide prevention." In urgent situations, in the U.S. call 911 or the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 1-800-273-8255 for help.
During and after the COVID-19 pandemic, mental health issues need more attention to reduce the risk of suicide. Broadly, this means that public and private mental health services and individual providers need to be creative in finding, assessing and treating individuals at risk of suicide. This might include, for example, improving working conditions and providing more mental health services for workers on the front lines, encouraging scheduled breaks and taking time off, offering telehealth counseling, or providing food support and financial aid to those who have lost their jobs.
Individual action is important, too, especially during times when self-isolation and physical distancing are recommended. If you're concerned that someone is or might become depressed or suicidal:
Check in on a regular basis. Use phone calls, texting, video calls or other methods of messaging if physical distancing is needed — especially if the person has an existing mental health issue.
Offer to help with basic needs. For example, you might offer to pick up groceries or pharmacy items or connect the person with a delivery service or volunteer organization that can help.
Point out the importance of a daily routine. For example, suggest getting up and going to bed at the same time every day and having regular mealtimes.
Encourage physical activity. This might include for example, taking walks regularly, doing stretching exercises or gardening.
Encourage mental activity. Suggest activities that stimulate the mind. These might include, for example, learning a new skill or hobby by viewing a video online.
Suggest limiting the time spent reading the news. Negative news may spur anxiety. For updates on COVID-19, go to trusted websites such as the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Learn the warning signs of suicide. Learning what to watch for can help you determine when and if you need to take action to aid your loved one in getting through a mental health crisis.
You're not responsible for preventing someone from taking his or her own life — but your support and intervention may help the person see that other options are available to stay safe and get treatment.
来自医学博士William F. Marshall, III的回答。
While coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mostly spreads from person to person, it can also spread from people to animals.
COVID-19 is a type of coronavirus. Coronaviruses are a family of viruses. Some cause cold-like illnesses in people, and others cause illness in animals, such as bats. In addition, some coronaviruses infect only animals. While the specific source of origin isn't known, the virus that causes COVID-19 is believed to have started in an animal, spread to humans and then spread between people.
Coronavirus in dogs and cats
According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a few pets — including cats and dogs — also have been infected with the virus that causes COVID-19. This happened mostly after the animals were in close contact with people infected with the COVID-19 virus.
Based on the limited available information, the risk of animals spreading the COVID-19 virus to people is considered low. Animals don't appear to play a significant role in spreading the virus that causes COVID-19. There is no evidence that viruses can spread to people or other animals from a pet's skin, fur or hair.
However, keep in mind that young children, people with weakened immune systems, and people age 65 and older are more likely to get sick from some other germs that animals can carry.
To protect your pet from the COVID-19 virus, don't let your dog or cat interact with people or animals outside your household. For example:
Avoid dog parks or public places where many people and dogs gather.
When walking your dog, make sure your dog wears a leash and keep your dog at least 6 feet (2 meters) from other people and animals.
Keep cats indoors when possible.
If you become sick with COVID-19 and have a pet:
Isolate yourself from everyone else, including your pet. If possible, have another person in your household care for your pet.
Avoid petting, snuggling, being kissed or licked, and sharing food or bedding with your pet.
If you care for your pet or are around animals while you're sick, wear a cloth face covering. Wash your hands before and after handling animals and their food, waste and supplies. Also, make sure you clean up after your pet.
If you have COVID-19 and your pet becomes sick, don't take your pet to the veterinarian yourself. Instead, contact the veterinarian. He or she might offer advice through a virtual visit or make another plan for treating your pet. Testing is only recommended for pets that have symptoms and have been exposed to a person with COVID-19.
If your pet tests positive for the virus that causes COVID-19, follow the same precautions you would if a family member became infected. Aim to isolate your pet in a separate room away from the rest of your family and have your pet stay at home. Wear gloves when you interact with your pet or its food, dishes, waste or bedding. Wash your hands after touching any of your pet's items. Don't put a face covering on your pet and don't wipe your pet with disinfectants, which can be harmful. If your pet develops new symptoms or seems to be getting worse, call the veterinarian.
If your pet becomes ill, there's reason to be hopeful. Of the small number of dogs and cats confirmed to have the virus that causes COVID-19, some didn't show any signs of illness. The pets that did become ill only experienced mild symptoms and could be cared for at home. None of them died.
If you have questions or concerns about your pet's health and how it can be affected by COVID-19, contact your veterinarian.
来自医学博士William F. Marshall, III的回答。
High blood pressure is a serious condition. Left untreated, it can lead to many other health issues. Health risks linked to high blood pressure include heart disease, stroke and dementia.
The latest evidence shows that people with uncontrolled or untreated high blood pressure may be at risk of getting severely ill with COVID-19. It's also important to note that people with untreated high blood pressure seem to be more at risk of complications from COVID-19 than those whose high blood pressure is managed with medication.
If you have high blood pressure, the most important step you can take is to manage it. Follow the treatment plan you've created with your doctor. Protecting yourself against the serious health issues that high blood pressure can cause is especially important with COVID-19.
Medication and lifestyle changes offer a powerful combination for preventing or reducing the health issues high blood pressure can cause.
Here's a reminder of the lifestyle choices that can help control high blood pressure:
Choose heart-healthy foods. Consider the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, which focuses on fruits, vegetables, whole grains, poultry, fish and low-fat dairy foods.
Decrease the salt in your diet. Aim to limit sodium to less than 2,300 milligrams (mg) a day or less. However, a lower sodium intake — 1,500 mg a day or less — is ideal for most adults.
Lose weight. Losing even a little weight can reduce your blood pressure.
Get active. Regular exercise lowers blood pressure and helps with stress and weight loss.
Manage stress. When you're stressed, you may cope in unhealthy ways that can raise your blood pressure. Try managing stress in healthy ways, such as deep breathing and meditation.
Avoid or limit alcohol. Alcohol can raise blood pressure.
Quit smoking. Tobacco causes blood pressure to rise and plaque to build up quickly in your arteries.
Lifestyle changes, taking medication, tracking your blood pressure daily — whatever you're doing to manage your blood pressure, stick with it. Don't change anything you're doing without talking to your doctor first. If you take medication to control your blood pressure, make sure to have at least a two-week supply.
来自医学博士William F. Marshall, III的回答。
Research increasingly shows that racial and ethnic minorities are disproportionately affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the United States.
According to recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native people had an age-adjusted COVID-19 hospitalization rate about 5.3 times that of non-Hispanic white people. COVID-19 hospitalization rates among non-Hispanic Black people and Hispanic or Latino people were both about 4.7 times the rate of non-Hispanic white people.
While there's no evidence that people of color have genetic or other biological factors that make them more likely to be affected by COVID-19, they are more likely to have underlying health conditions. Having certain conditions, such as type 2 diabetes, increases your risk of severe illness with COVID-19. But experts also know that where people live and work affects their health. Over time, these factors lead to different health risks among racial and ethnic minority groups.
Where you live and who you live with can make it challenging to avoid getting sick with COVID-19 and get treatment. For example, racial and ethnic minority members might be more likely to live in multi-generational homes, crowded conditions and densely populated areas, such as New York City. This can make social distancing difficult.
The type of work you do also may contribute to your risk of getting COVID-19. Many people of color have jobs that are considered essential or can't be done remotely and involve interaction with the public. In the U.S., according to the CDC nearly 25% of employed Hispanic and Black or African Americans work in the service industry, compared with 16% of non-Hispanic white workers. Black or African Americans also account for 30% of licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses. Many people of color also depend on public transportation to get to work. These factors can result in exposure to the virus.
Your access to health care also affects your health risks. Members of racial and ethnic minority groups are more likely to encounter barriers to getting care, such as a lack of health insurance or not being paid when missing work to get care. In 2017, according to the CDC only about 6% of non-Hispanic white people were uninsured, while the rate was nearly 18% for Hispanics and 10% for non-Hispanic Black people.
Racism may also play a role in health risks. The stress of dealing with racial discrimination can take a toll on your body, causing early aging. This has been linked to underlying conditions, which can increase the risk of severe illness with COVID-19.
All of these factors — underlying health conditions, dense living conditions, employment in the service industry or as an essential worker, access to health care and racism — contribute to the impact of COVID-19 on people of color. But these are long-standing issues. Research shows that people of color are often more greatly affected by public health emergencies, such as Hurricane Katrina.
The COVID-19 pandemic highlights the need to promote the health and well-being of racial and ethnic minorities.
来自医学博士Daniel C. DeSimone的回答。
After getting a COVID-19 vaccine, it's still important to take safety precautions, such as avoiding close contact with others, to prevent the spread of the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Further research is needed to understand the immunity that a COVID-19 vaccine provides and how long protection lasts before experts will consider changing current safety recommendations.
After you get both doses of a COVID-19 vaccine, it takes about two weeks for your body to build up protection. But even then you could become infected with the virus that causes COVID-19. Keep in mind that the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine is 95% effective in preventing the COVID-19 virus. The Moderna COVID-19 vaccine is 94.1% effective in preventing the COVID-19 virus. While your risk of getting the COVID-19 virus after being vaccinated is low, it is possible.
It's also not clear if the COVID-19 vaccines reduce the spread of the COVID-19 virus. As a result, it's not known if a person who is vaccinated could be a carrier of the COVID-19 virus and spread it to others, even if he or she doesn't become sick. More research is needed to determine if you are still contagious after being vaccinated.
Because of these factors, even once you're vaccinated you could still pose a health risk to unvaccinated family and friends by visiting with them in person. The risks of serious illness from COVID-19 are highest for people who are older. Nursing home residents are at high risk because they often have multiple underlying health problems, combined with advanced age.
Even after getting the COVID-19 vaccine, continue to follow safety precautions and consider avoiding in-person visits with friends and family until more is known about the immunity the vaccines provide. If you choose to have in-person visits, remember to keep distance between yourself and others (within about 6 feet, or 2 meters). Wear a mask. Visit outdoors, when possible, or open windows and doors to make sure the space is well-ventilated. And wash your hands often.
来自医学博士William F. Marshall的回答。
There isn't enough data to recommend use of vitamin D to prevent infection with the virus that causes COVID-19 or to treat COVID-19, according to the National Institutes of Health and the World Health Organization.
Several recent studies have looked at the impact of vitamin D on COVID-19. One study of 489 people found that those who had a vitamin D deficiency were more likely to test positive for the virus that causes COVID-19 than people who had normal levels of vitamin D.
Other research has observed high rates of vitamin D deficiency in people with COVID-19 who experienced acute respiratory failure. These people had a significantly higher risk of dying. And a small, randomized study found that of 50 people hospitalized with COVID-19 who were given a high dose of a type of vitamin D (calcifediol), only one needed treatment in the intensive care unit. In contrast, among the 26 people with COVID-19 who weren't given calcifediol, 13 needed to be treated in the intensive care unit.
In addition, vitamin D deficiency is common in the United States, particularly among Hispanic and Black people. These groups have been disproportionately affected by COVID-19. Vitamin D deficiency is also more common in people who are older, people who have a body mass index of 30 or higher (obesity), and people who have high blood pressure (hypertension). These factors also increase the risk of severe COVID-19 symptoms.
However, in recent years two randomized clinical trials that studied the effects of vitamin D supplementation had less hopeful results. In both trials, high doses of vitamin D were given to people who had vitamin D deficiencies and were seriously ill — not with COVID-19. Vitamin D didn't reduce the length of their hospital stays or their mortality rates when compared with those given a placebo.
Further research is needed to determine what role, if any, vitamin D and vitamin D deficiency might play in the prevention of and treatment of COVID-19.
In the meantime, if you have a vitamin D deficiency, talk to your doctor about whether a supplement might be right for you. If you're concerned about your vitamin D level, ask your doctor about getting it checked.
Chiu 说到 ，另外一个年轻人要接种流感疫苗的原因是保护易感人群。甚至在你出现明显症状之前，你就可以将病毒传给其他人。“如果你得了流感，你可能会将你爱的人-小孩和老人，如你的孩子和父母及祖父母-陷于危险之中。”